American Society of Magazine Editors


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Users of Facebook can "like" status updates, comments, photos, and links posted by their Facebook friends and other users, as well as adverts, by clicking a link at the bottom of the post or content. This makes the content appears in their friends' News feeds. Facebook says "Liking" is intended to "Give positive feedback and connect with things you care about". This was formerly known as become a “Fan” of a page.


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A computer file format that compresses audio files by a factor of 12 from a .wav file.


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2 Finger Swipe


A touch screen keyboarding technique that lets users swipe or scroll through content with two fingers for faster speed.


2D Barcode


A more advanced version of the traditional UPC barcode designed to work with common camera phones (representing 80% of new phones sold in the US). With a 2D barcode application on the phone, a user can “scan” a barcode and link to a specific mobile website, save an event to the phones calendar, dial customer service, and more.




2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991.[1] Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were that phone conversations were digitally encrypted; 2G systems were significantly more efficient on the spectrum allowing for far greater mobile phone penetration levels; and 2G introduced data services for mobile, starting with SMS text messages.


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302 Redirect


The process of a server sending a browser the location of a requested ad, rather than sending the ad itself. Ad servers use 302 redirects to allow them to track activities such as ad requests or ad clicks.


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404 Error


404 error is a common website error message that indicates a webpage cannot be found. It may be produced when a user clicks an outdated (or "broken") link or when a URL is typed incorrectly in a Web browser's address field. Some websites display custom 404 error pages, which may look similar to other pages on the site. Other websites simply display the Web server's default error message text, which typically begins with "Not Found."  




Forth generation data networking. Also a marketing term used by Sprint for WiMax, T-Mobile for HSPA+, and AT&T for HSPA+. Think of this as super-fast broadband Internet (cable/fiber). (See HSPA, HSPA+, LTE)


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802.11a is a Wi-Fi standard developed by the IEEE for transmitting data over a wireless network. 


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< or >


Displays the previous page and next page of content (applies to black & white e-readers). 


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This sign is used to call out user names in Tweets. E.g. "Hello @Twitter!" When a Twitter handle is preceded by the @ sign, it becomes a link to the Twitter profile.


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Advanced Audio Distribution Profile is a Bluetooth standard used to transmit and receive stereo music. Added to iPhone, iPod touch, and iPad in iOS 3. It’s what lets you send iPod music to your wireless stereo Bluetooth headset.


Abandonment Pop Up


A pop up that appears when a transaction is interrupted prior to completion, and which attempts to "rescue" the transaction with an offer for a product. See also "Exit Pop up" or "Rescue Pop up"




The Audit Bureau of Circulations is headquartered in Schaumburg, Illinois, with member service offices in New York and Toronto. As of September 1, 2002, ABC has 4,322 members, including 787 consumer titles, 257 business and farm publications, 1,326 newspapers, 1,334 advertisers and ad agencies, and 492 associate members. (Also see Audit Bureau and BPA International.)




When a Web server does not successfully transfer a unit of content or ad to a browser. This is usually caused by a user hitting the stop button, the ESC key, or clicking on another link prior to the completion of a download.




A device that detects acceleration and tilt. Built using MEMS technology, accelerometers detect impact and deploy automobile airbags as well as retract the hard disk's read/write heads when a laptop is dropped. Digital cameras employ them in their image stabilization circuits. They are used in washing machines to detect excessive vibration and in pedometers for more accurate distance measurement. They also enable a handheld display to be switched between portrait and landscape modes when the unit is turned. 


Activity Audit


Independent verification of measured activity for a specified time period. Some of the key metrics validated are ad impressions, page impressions, clicks, total visits and unique users. An activity audit results in a report verifying the metrics. Formerly known as a count audit.


Activity Swirl


Commonly known as the "wheel of death," this icon "swirls" when searching for a network or loading a page or program.


Ad Audience


The number of unique users exposed to an ad within a specified time period.


Ad banner


A graphic image or other media object used as an advertisement. See for voluntary guidelines for banner ads.


Ad Blocker


Software on a user's browser which prevents advertisements from being displayed.


Ad Campaign Audit


An activity audit for a specific ad campaign.


Ad Centric Measurement


Audience measurement derived from a third-party ad server's own server logs.


Ad Click


A measurement of the user-initiated action of responding to (such as clicking on) an ad element causing a re-direct to another Web location or another frame or page within the advertisement. There are three types of ad clicks: 1) click-throughs; 2) in-unit clicks; and 3)mouseovers. Ad click-throughs should be tracked and reported as a 302 redirect at the ad server and should filter out robotic activity.


Ad Click Rate


Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.


Ad Display/Ad Delivered


When an ad is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.


Ad Download


When an ad is downloaded by a server to a user's browser. Ads can be requested, but aborted or abandoned before actually being downloaded to the browser, and hence there would be no opportunity to see the ad by the user.


Ad Exchanges


Marketplaces that allow for the buying and selling of ad inventory in a biddable, real-time sport market on an open platform. Very similar to the stock exchange model.


Ad Frequency


The number of times an ad is delivered to the same browser in a single session or time period. A site can use cookies in order to manage ad frequency.


Ad Hoc


An ad hoc network refers to a network connection established for a single session and does not require a router or a wireless base station.


Ad Impression


1) An ad which is served to a user’s browser. Ads can be requested by the user’s browser (referred to as pulled ads) or they can be pushed, such as e-mailed ads; 2) A measurement of responses from an ad delivery system to an ad request from the user's browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and is recorded at a point as late as possible in the process of delivery of the creative material to the user's browser -- therefore closest to the actual opportunity to see by the user. Two methods are used to deliver ad content to the user:a) serverinitiated and b)client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher's Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user's
browser to perform these activities.

For organizations that use a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher's ad server or
third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process. See for ad campaign measurement guidelines.


Ad Impression Ratio


Click-throughs divided by ad impressions. See click rate.


Ad Insertion


When an ad is inserted in a document and recorded by the ad server.


Ad Materials


The creative artwork, copy, active URLs and active target sites which are due to the seller prior to the initiation of the ad campaign.


Ad Network


An aggregator or broker of advertising inventory for many sites. Ad networks are the sales representatives for the Web sites within the network.


Ad Networks


Ad networks exist to help marketers achieve reach and scale in a fragmented online display ad marketplace. Ad networks help by bringing together inventory and audiences to enable marketers to buy online ad impressions faster and more efficiently. There are many different types of ad networks, some focus on reach and price and do not provide much insight on “who and where.” Premium networks, including publisher-specific networks, focus on guaranteeing audience demographics and quality.


Ad Noters


A person who has noticed an advertisement in a publication. An ad-noter is someone who may only have noted the advertisement or glanced at it without any recall of the product or service it promotes, as opposed to people who have had a closer look at the ad or have read part of it.


Ad Recall


A measure of advertising effectiveness in which a sample of respondents are exposed to an ad and then at a later point in time are asked if they recall the ad. Ad recall can be on an aided or unaided basis. Aided ad recall is when the respondent is told the name of the brand or category being advertised.


Ad Request


The request for an advertisement as a direct result of a user's action as recorded by the ad server. Ad requests can come directly from the user’s browser or from an intermediate Internet resource, such as a Web content server.


Ad Serving


The delivery of ads by a server to an end user's computer on which the ads are then displayed by a browser and/or cached. Ad serving is normally performed either by a Web publisher, or by a third-party ad server. Ads can be embedded in the page or served separately.


Ad Serving Providers


Ad serving describes the technology and service that places advertisements on websites. Ad serving technology companies provide software to websites and advertisers to serve ads, count them, and choose the ads that will make the website or advertise the most money, and monitor progress of different advertising campaigns.


Ad Space


The location on a page of a site in which an advertisement can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. Multiple ad spaces can exist on a single page.


Ad Stream


The series of ads displayed by the user during a single visit to a site (also impression stream).


Ad Transfers


The successful display of an advertiser's Web site after the user clicked on an ad. When a user clicks on an advertisement, a click-through is recorded and re-directs or "transfers" the user's browser to an advertiser's Web site. If the user successfully displays the advertiser's Web site, an ad transfer is recorded.


Ad View


When the ad is actually seen by the user. Note this is not measurable today. The best approximation today is provided by ad displays.


Ad Window


Separate from the content window.




An add-on is a software extension that adds extra features to a program. It may extend certain functions within the program, add new items to the program's interface, or give the program additional capabilities.




Typically refers to either a website or email address. A website address appears in the form of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and is prefixed with http:// or https://.


Address Bar


An address bar is a text field near the top of a Web browser window that displays the URL of the current webpage. The URL, or web address, reflects the address of the current page and automatically changes whenever you visit a new webpage. 




New names added to the circulation file.


Advance Renewal


Generally, a renewal generated by a promotional effort that goes out well in advance of the rest of the renewal promotional series. Advance or early renewals that come in unsolicited are sometimes called unidentified renewals.


Advertiser Copies


Each advertiser in a given issue is commonly sent a copy of the issue so that the advertiser can check the ad.


Advertising Revenue


Revenue realized from the sale of advertising. See interactive advertising revenue.




A magazine that derives more than half of its revenue from advertising. Most large consumer magazines are advertising-driven.




Adware is free software that is supported by advertisements. Common adware programs are toolbars that sit on your desktop or work in conjunction with your Web browser. They include features like advanced searching of the Web or your hard drive and better organization of your bookmarks and shortcuts.




Website affiliates are what drive Internet marketing. Companies run affiliate programs to generate leads and sales from other Websites. They pay the sites who host their ads a commission for products sold through the links on their sites. 


Affiliate Marketing


An agreement between two sites in which one site (the affiliate) agrees to feature content or an ad designed to drive traffic to another site. In return, the affiliate receives a percentage of sales or some other form of compensation generated by that traffic.


Affinity Marketing


Selling products or services to customers on the basis of their established buying patterns. The offer can be communicated by e-mail promotions, online or offline advertising.


Affirmative Consent


A consumer-initiated action confirming they’ve agreed to allow a particular company the use of their email name for marketing purposes. See "Opt In, Opt Out."


Agency Credit Cancels


It is customary to enter agency-sold subscriptions as cash subscriptions, even though the agency may have sold them on credit and is billing for them. When subscribers do not pay within the audit bureau's allotted time frame, the agency notifies the publisher's fulfillment operation, and the subscriptions are discontinued.


Agency Credit Reinstates


When a customer pays after an agency-generated subscription order already has been cancelled, the subscription is resumed or reinstated.


Agent-Sold Subs

Paid subscriptions sold by commissionable, outside agencies.



An organization that combines information such as news, sports scores, weather forecasts and reference materials from various sources and makes it available to its customers. 




Acronym for the Association for Interactive Marketing, the e-commerce division of the DMA (Direct Marketing Association).


Airplane Mode


When airplane mode (available on iPad Wi-Fi + 3G) is on you can’t access the Internet, or use Bluetooth devices. Non-wireless features are available.



An iTunes protocol from Apple that lets computers and Apple iDevices stream audio and video to stereo and home entertainment systems. AirPlay superseded the AirTunes protocol. The name "airplay" is a broadcasting term that means the amount of time a song is played over the air. See Apple TV and iTunes.



A feature in Apple iDevices starting with iOS 4.2 that enables wireless printing directly to an AirPrint-compatible printer. 




Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a method of building interactive applications for the Web that process user requests immediately. Ajax combines several programming tools including JavaScript, dynamic HTML (DHTML), Extensible Markup Language (XML), cascading style sheets (CSS), the Document Object Model (DOM), and the Microsoft object, XMLHttpRequest. Ajax allows content on Web pages to update immediately when a user performs an action, unlike an HTTP request, during which users must wait for a whole new page to load.




An algorithm is any set of detailed instructions which results in a predictable end-state from a known beginning.




See Draw.


ALT Tags


HTML tags / text labels used to describe an image that appears when the mouse is rolled over the image on a Web page. People who view pages in text-only mode will see ALT tags instead of images. Some search engines look for keywords in ALT tags.


Alternate Source


In strict terms, an alternate source is any subscription source other than direct mail. However, in practice, the term is far more often applied to nontraditional sources such as package inserts and partnerships than it is to commonly used non-direct-mail sources such as telemarketing.


Anchor Text (ALT Text)


The text displayed while an image is being loaded. ALT tags are particularly relevant for mobile SEO, since many people turn off image downloads in their mobile browsers to preserve bandwidth.


Android 2.2


Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is used by several smartphones.


Animated Advertisement


An ad that changes over time. For example, an animated ad is an
interactive Java applet or Shockwave or GIF89a file.


Animated GIF


An animation created by combining multiple GIF images in one file. The result is multiple images, displayed one after another, that give the appearance of movement.




An intermediary which prevents Web sites from seeing a user’s Internet Protocol (IP) address.




An open source web server developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Apache is the most popular web server on the internet.


App Downloads


The installed containers (or shells) on tablet devices where issues are downloaded.


App Store


 Apple's online store for downloading free and paid iPhone, iPod touch and iPad applications from third-party developers as well as Apple itself. Launched along with the iPhone 3G in 2008, the App Store is accessible from the mobile device, and it is integrated into Apple's iTunes software.


Apple ID


Apple ID is an authentication system that Apple Inc. introduced for many of its products, such as iWork, the iTunes Store and the Apple Store. Apple ID serves as an all-in-one account that allows users access to a variety of Apple’s resources. Because an Apple ID can be used on multiple products and services offered by Apple, it can also be called: Apple account, .Mac account, iTunes Store account, and iChat account. 


Apple TV


Apple TV is a digital media receiver made and sold by Apple. It is a small form factor network appliance designed to play IPTV digital content originating from the iTunes Store, Netflix, YouTube, Flickr, MobileMe,, NBA League Pass or any Mac OS X or Windows computer running iTunes onto an enhanced-definition or high-definition widescreen television. 




A small, self-contained software application that is most often used by browsers to automatically display animation and/or to perform database queries requested by the user. The difference between a standard Java application and a Java applet is that an applet can't access system resources on the local computer. System files and serial devices (modems, printers, scanners, etc.) cannot be called or used by the applet.


Applicable Browser


Any browser an ad will impact, regardless of whether it will play the ad.


Application Programming Interface (API)


(Application Programming Interface) An API is a set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when building software for a specific operating system. The API allows programmers to use predefined functions to interact with the operating system, instead of writing them from scratch.




Most often an index page, often organizing posts or entries by either category or date. 




See Grace Copies.




Distortion that is introduced into audio or video by the compression algorithm (codec). Compressed images may have stray pixels (often white dots) that were not present in the original image. See codec.




1) Application Service Provider: a company that offers organizations access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located on site at the organization's premises. 2)Active Server Pages: This is the standard programming system for Internet applications hosted on Windows servers. It is bundled with Internet Information Server (IIS) when you
buy Windows. The idea is that you write HTML pages with little embedded bits of Visual Basic, C# or other languages, that are interpreted by the server. Microsoft's technology to enables HTML pages to be dynamic and interactive by embedding scripts. Since the scripts in ASP pages (suffix .asp) are processed by the server, any browser can work with ASP pages regardless of its support for the scripting language used therein.


Aspect Ratio


The width-to-height ratio of the picture frame. TV broadcasts at a 4:3 (1.33:1) aspect ratio; digital TV will be broadcast with a 16:9 (1.78:1) ratio; and most feature films are shot in at least a 1.85:1 ratio. IMUs have an aspect ratio of 6:5 (330x 250; 336 x 280; and 180 x 150).


Attached Renewal/Invoice


A renewal promotion attached to the magazine or mailed with it in a polybag, in place of or in addition to a direct mail effort. Despite polybag costs and a slight additional Periodicals class postage charge, attached efforts are cheaper than a mailing sent USPS Standard A. Also, an attached effort may pull as well or better than a direct mail effort.




The gross or net number of people/homes exposed to a magazine or advertising message.


Audience Accumulation


The total net number of people/homes exposed to a magazine during its duration.





Third party validation of log activity and/or measurement process associated with Internet activity/advertising. Activity audits validate measurement counts. Process audits validate internal controls associated with measurement.


Audit Bureau


An independent organization that audits the claimed circulations of its publisher members for purposes of verifying those claims for advertisers. ABC and BPA International (see definitions) are the dominant magazine publishing audit bureaus.


Audit Report


The annual report from an audit bureau that covers two consecutive publishers' statements (see definition) for a given magazine. Often termed a white sheet by ABC members. BPA International members are not required to print an audit report if no changes are required to the data reported on the publisher's statement.




A third party independent organization that performs audits. 


Authenticated Access


Tablet issue access provided to print edition subscribers.




In single-copy sales, a retailer's approval for a particular title to be carried in some or all of its stores. In subscription agency sales, the publisher's approval for an agent to sell a particular title, specifying rates and commissions.


Automatic Renewal


See Continuous Service.




A graphical image or likeness that replaces a photo of the author of the content on a blog or other Web page. 




Audio/Video Control Transport Protocol - allows for the transmission of basic music controls between devices and accessories (only supported for Apple devices). 


Average Issue Audience (Readership)


The projected number of people who have read or looked into an "average issue" of a magazine. Audience/reader figures are larger than circulation due to the fact that a single issue of a magazine has multiple readers.


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Back Copies


Copies served to a new subscriber that are older than the current issue. Often used to help meet paid rate base or controlled demographics goals.


Bad Pay Allowance


A deduction from gross subscription circulation that a publisher carries in anticipation of eventual bad pay.


Bad Pay Copies


Copies sent out on credit before a publisher suspends a subscription for nonpayment.




Refers to the speed of a user's connection. Users with slow connection methods such as dial-up modems are considered to have low bandwidth. Users with high speed connections such as DSL, cable modems and other high speed lines are considered to have high bandwidth.


Bandwidth Competition


A bottleneck, however brief, when two or more files are simultaneously transmitted over a single line. Unless the system is able to prioritize among the files, the effect is to slow delivery of each.


Bang Tail


This direct mail format features an attached reply envelope, eliminating printing of separate reply envelopes and insertion costs.




A static or animated graphic that is displayed on a Web site, used primarily for advertising purposes. Banner advertisements often contain bright colors and animation to attract a user's attention. When a banner is clicked, the user is typically directed to a page containing more information about the product or service being advertised. Also see "IAB."



Banner Blindness


A phenomenon in web usability where visitors on a website ignore banner-like information. 




Refers to the original frequency range of a transmission signal before it is converted, or modulated, to a different frequency range. 


Basic Rate


Prior to 2001's change in the audit bureaus' rules, basic rate a magazine's standard, published subscription price was used as the benchmark for defining paid circulation. (Subs paid at at least 50 percent of basic were defined as paid.) Now that both ABC and BPA define paid circulation as any sub or single copy paid at at least one cent, basic rate is used primarily for postal purposes. The Postal Service continues to base periodicals-rate eligibility on a magazine's having at least 50 percent of its circulation paid at 50 percent of basic rate and/or requested. Therefore, magazines continue to need to monitor these levels and publish a basic rate on their mastheads.


BBM (BlackBerry messenger)


Is a proprietary Instant Messenger application included on BlackBerry devices. It was developed by Research In Motion (RIM), maker of the BlackBerry device. Messages sent via Blackberry Messenger are sent over the BlackBerry PIN system; thus, communication is only possible between two BlackBerry devices.




A snippet of code placed in an ad, on a Web page, or in an email which helps measure whether the ad, page or email was delivered to the browser and to track actions in general. Also known as a clear GIF or pixel tag.


Behavioral Targeting (BT)


A technique used by online publishers and advertisers to increase the effectiveness of their campaigns. Behavioral targeting uses information collected on an individual’s web browsing behavior such as the pages they have visited or the searches they have made to select which advertisements should be displayed to that individual. Practitioners believe this helps them deliver their online advertisements to the users who are most likely to be influenced by them.


Belly Band


Promotional band wrapped around the magazine after it is printed and bound.


Best (Beta Test)


A beta test is the second phase of software testing where a not-yet-final version of the software is made available to a limited number of users so that they can test the program and provide feedback prior to final release.




A term referring to any advertisement that is not a banner, e.g. an interstitial, streaming video ads, etc.


Bind-In Card


Most magazines include inserted (or blown in see definition) subscription promotion cards.




"Basic Input/Output System." The BIOS is a program pre-installed on Windows-based computers (not on Macs) that the computer uses to start up. The CPU accesses the BIOS even before the operating system is loaded. The BIOS then checks all your hardware connections and locates all your devices. 


BIPAD Number


Within the Universal Product Code that is applied to all supermarket products (including magazine covers) and used for retail scanning/data-capturing purposes, each newsstand-distributed magazine is assigned a five-digit BIPAD number. The BIPAD is used for purposes of distribution, billing and credits for unsold copies, or returns. In most cases, BIPAD's are identified by national distributor (each distributor is assigned a series of numbers and each client title is in turn assigned a number within the series). In some cases, a publisher or wholesaler is assigned a BIPAD. BIPAD originally stood for the Bureau of Independent Publishers and Distributors, a now-defunct organization that initiated the industrywide assignment of numbers during the early days of distribution channel computerization. Today, the numbering system is administered by BIPAD Inc., which is managed by Harrington Associates.




The smallest unit of data in a computer. A bit has a single binary value of either 0 or 1. There are eight bits in a byte.


Bit Rate


A measure of bandwidth which tells you how fast data is traveling from one place to another on a computer network. Bit rate is usually expressed in kilobits (100 bits) per second or Kbps.




BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing protocol designed to reduce the bandwidth required to transfer files. It does this by distributing file transfers across multiple systems, thereby lessening the average bandwidth used by each computer.


Black List


An ISP-disapproved list of certain Bulk Mailers and e-mail marketers who have not met an ISP’s delivery standards and whose messages will not reach their intended recipients’ email boxes because they will be blocked by the ISP. ISPs often move bulk mailers to the black list in response to customer complaints about unwanted, unsolicited email; if the percentage of complaints for a certain mailer reach a certain level, the email will be blocked. Different ISPs set
different levels, some are more stringent than others.


Blog (weBLOG)


An ongoing internet-based publication, in chronological format, often focusing on a mix of news, commentary, and analysis, with frequent links to other sites on the web. (TiPb is a blog.) 


Blow-in or Blow-in Card


A subscription promotion card or envelope blown loosely into a magazine so that it will fall out and attract attention.




Blu-ray is an optical disc format such as CD and DVD. It was developed for recording and playing back high-definition (HD) video and for storing large amounts of data. While a CD can hold 700 MB of data and a basic DVD can hold 4.7 GB of data, a single Blu-ray disc can hold up to 25 GB of data.




This wireless technology enables communication between Bluetooth-compatible devices. It is used for short-range connections between desktop and laptop computers, PDAs, digital cameras, scanners, cellular phones, and printers. 


Bonus Impressions


Additional ad impressions above the commitments outlined in the approved insertion order.




To boot a computer is to turn it on. Once the computer's power is turned on, the "boot process" takes place. This process involves loading the startup instructions from the computer's ROM, followed by loading the operating system from the current boot disk. 


Boot Loader


Software that runs on the S-Gold chip that is responsible for booting up iPhone OS. It boots your phone into restore mode of DFU mode in the event of an emergency. It is the foundation that your phone is built on and if you damage your boot loader, the phone will not start.




Refers to undelivered email. There are 2 kinds of bounces:
1) Soft bounce: A message is not delivered due to a temporary problem on the receiving end, such as the intended recipient’s email box being full, or temporary problems with their ISP. 2)Hard bounce: A message is not delivered do to a permanent problem on the receiving end, such as the individual’s mailbox being closed, the email address itself being invalid, or the ISP being permanently out of service.




A Web page that is delivered to a user offering goods and services. A "bounceback offer" is often displayed within an order confirmation to try and get the consumer to buy more product while they’re "hot."


BPA International


One of the two dominant circulation audit bureaus, headquartered in Shelton, CT. BPA currently has about 5,500 members, including 1,952 business publications, 527 consumer publications, and 2,775 advertisers and advertising agencies, plus newspaper, Web site and associate members. (Also see ABC and Audit Bureau.)


Brand Extensions


Also called ancillary products or ancillary revenue streams. New products or services that complement and expand the franchise of an existing branded product. For instance, a consumer magazine may spin off related publications or various merchandise bearing the magazine's name, such as books, CD's or online products. A business title might spin off trade shows, books or business information services. In some companies, non-magazine media and spin-off products contribute as much or more revenue as magazines.




Acronym for business reply card. BRC's are the primary reply vehicle for direct mail orders, as well as subscription blow-ins and bind-ins. They are postage-paid by the publisher to encourage response from the prospect.




Acronym for business reply envelope, a key element of the typical direct mail subscription promotion package. BRE's are postage-paid by the publisher to encourage response from the prospect.




An Internet connection that delivers a relatively high bit rate: any bit rate at or above 100 Kbps. Cable modems, DSL and ISDN all offer broadband connections.




Can refer to the action of pushing out email, or can refer to the email itself.


Broadcast Email/Fax


The bulk distribution of promotion materials (such as new business or renewal/requalification efforts) via email or fax. May be performed in-house or outsourced to a third party.


Browser / Web Browser


Software programming used for viewing Web pages; must be installed on every computer where pages are to be viewed. Popular browsers include Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer and Safari.


Browser Sniffer


See Sniffer.




A magazine's projected circulation numbers and revenues for the year. The budget, now most often developed with the help of a computer model, is based on an analysis of the volume and revenue to be produced by various circulation sources, along with their costs.


Bulk Circulation


Two or more copies of a magazine sent to a single addressee who, distributes individual copies.


Bulk Subscriptions


Outdated term for multiple subscriptions sold to one customer, usually at a discount. Now termed public place/sponsored by ABC and multiple copies to same addressee by BPA.


Bumper Ad


Usually refers to a linear video ad with a clickable call-to-action. The format is usually shorter than full linear ads and the call-to-action can usually load another video or new site while pausing the content.




1) Clickable graphic that contains certain functionality, such as taking one someplace or executing a program; 2) Buttons can also be ads. See for voluntary guidelines defining specifications of button ads.


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A change of postal address.




Memory used to temporarily store the most frequently requested content/files/pages in order to speed its delivery to the user. Cache can be local (i.e. on a browser) or on a network. In the case of local cache, most computers have both memory (RAM), and disk (hard drive) cache. Today, Web browsers cause virtually all data viewed to be cached on a user's computer.


Cache Busting


The process by which sites or servers serve content or HTML in such a manner as to minimize or prevent browsers or proxies from serving content from their cache. This forces the user or proxy to fetch a fresh copy for each request. Among other reasons, cache busting is used to provide a more accurate count of the number of requests from users.


Cached Ad Impressions


The delivery of an advertisement to a browser from local cache or a
proxy server’s cache. When a user requests a page that contains a cached ad, the ad is obtained from the cache and displayed.




The process of copying a Web element (page or ad) for later reuse. On the Web, this copying is normally done in two places: in the user's browser and on proxy servers. When a user makes a request for a Web element, the browser looks into its own cache for the element; then a proxy, if any; followed by the intended server. Caching is done to reduce redundant network traffic, resulting in increased overall efficiency of the Internet.




In fulfillment, the process in which subscription orders and their enclosed payments are separated and then recorded. Traditionally called caging because clerks who performed this task were enclosed in wire cages for security purposes. Also referred to as cashiering.




A business and investing specific term for the smoothed annualized gain of an investment over a given time period. Remains widely used, particularly in growth industries or to compare the growth rates of two investments because CAGR dampens the effect of volatility of periodic returns that can render arithmetic means irrelevant. 




Refers to the “Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act” put into effect by the U.S. Congress on January 1, 2004, and enforced by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).


Capacitive Screen


Refers to the way the tablet’s screen responds to gestures – capacitive versions will be more responsive than resistive screens. The flip side of that is capacitive screens tend to be more expensive.




User interface element enabling horizontal navigation by swiping or horizontal scrolling. 




A company that provides cell phone service.


Carrier IQ


Secretly records the numbers a user calls, their text messages, the content of Web searches (including encrypted ones) and a whole mess of other data.




A synonym for caging that is most often used in the international market. Cashiering is also the term used to encompass a number of services designed to assist companies engaged in international marketing. The most basic of these services include accepting payments in local currencies and providing currency conversions.


Catalog Agency


A commissionable source selling subscriptions, primarily to libraries or companies.




Acronym for circulation director.




Stands for "Compact Disc Recordable." CD-R discs are blank CDs that can record data written by a CD burner. The word "recordable" is used because CD-Rs are often used to record audio, which can be played back by most CD players. 




Stands for "Compact Disc Read-Only Memory." A CD-ROM is a CD that can be read by a computer with an optical drive. The "ROM" part of the term means the data on the disc is "read-only," or cannot be altered or erased.




A CD-RW is a blank CD that can be written to by a CD burner. Unlike a CD-R (CD-Recordable), a CD-RW can be written to multiple times. The data burned on a CD-RW cannot be changed, but it can be erased. Therefore, you have to completely erase a CD-RW every time you want to change the files or add new data.




Stands for "Code Division Multiple Access." CDMA is a wireless transmission technology that was developed during World War II by the English allies to avoid having their transmissions jammed. After the war ended, Qualcomm patented the technology and made it commercially available as a digital cellular technology. Now CDMA is a popular communications method used by many cell phone companies. 


Cellular Capability


For making phone calls and text message if you have a cellular carrier agreement. Voice calls on a tablet PC would usually be made via speaker phone or via a Bluetooth headset. 




1) a band of similar content; 2) a type of sales outlet (also known as channel of distribution), for example retail, catalogue, or e-commerce.




A character is any letter, number, space, punctuation mark, or symbol that can be typed on a computer.  


Chat Rooms


An online discussion forum for a particular topic via a keyboard. Everyone who is logged in sees what everyone else is typing, although two people can decide to break off and have a private chat.


Checkout Display


In newsstand sales, the coveted display space at the checkouts of supermarkets, convenience stores and other mass outlets. In addition to a per-copy discount off cover price and the RDA (see definition), publishers at checkouts generally pay per-pocket display fees (see definition).




The number of distributed copies of a magazine. This figure may or may not be guaranteed.




A magazine that yields most of its revenue from circulation. Many newsstand-oriented magazines, special interest titles (which depend heavily on renewal revenue) and titles published by nonprofit organizations are circulation-driven.


Click (Press) The Screen


Press the screen - do this by touching the screen then releasing quickly. This action initiates an action. For example, when users click an item in a list, the screen that is associated with the item appears. This action is equivalent to clicking the trackwheel, trackball or trackpad. On a map, picture, or presentation attachment, this action zooms in to the map, picture, or presentation attachment. On a web page, this action zooms in to the web page or follows a link. In a text field, this action positions the cursor. If the field contains text, an outlined box appears around the cursor. 


Click Down


The action of clicking on an element within an ad and having another file displayed on the user’s screen, normally below or above the initial ad. Click down ads allow the user to stay on the same Web page and provide the advertiser a larger pallet to communicate their message.


Click Rate


Ratio of ad clicks to ad impressions.


Click Stream


Used to refer to the path that a user takes through a site. This includes the pages that were viewed and the order in which they were viewed. Click streams can be built by analyzing a site's log files.




The action of following a link within an advertisement or editorial content to another website or another page or frame within the website.




Similar to click down or click. But more commonly, click-withins are ads that allow the user to "drill down" and click, while remaining in the advertisement, not leaving the site on which they are residing.




1) metric which measures the reaction of a user to an Internet ad. There are three types of clicks: click-throughs; in-unit clicks; and mouseovers; 2) the opportunity for a user to download another file by clicking on an advertisement, as recorded by the server; 3) the result of a measurable interaction with an advertisement or key word that links to the advertiser’s intended Web site or another page or frame within the Web site; 4) metric which measures the reaction of a user to hot-linked editorial content. See for ad campaign measurement guidelines. See also ad click, click-through, in-unit clicks and mouseover.




The term "client software" is used to refer to the software that acts as the interface between the client computer and the server. 


Client-initiated Ad Impression


One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods:server-initiated and client-initiated. Client-initiated ad counting relies on the user’s browser for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a client-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur at the publisher's ad server or third-party ad server, subsequent to the ad request, or later, in the process. See server-initiated ad impression.


Clip Art


Clip art is a collection of pictures or images that can be imported into a document or another program. The images may be either raster graphics or vector graphics. Clip art galleries many contain anywhere from a few images to hundreds of thousands of images. 




The clipboard is a section of RAM where your computer stores copied data. This can be a selection of text, an image, a file, or other type of data. It is placed in the clipboard whenever you use the "Copy" command, which is located in the Edit menu of most programs. 


Cloud Computing ("The Cloud")


Refers to the growing phenomenon of users who can access their data from anywhere rather than being tied to a particular machine. It is where shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers over a network




A form of mail promotion in which a number of magazines or products are merchandised together.


CO-OP Database


A database comprising information from two or more companies for the mutual use and benefit of all participants.




A system of notation used to inform html formatting for Web pages or email messaging. See "Encoding."




When an individual or business installs a server that they own at an ISP or hosting facility. Collocation is often a low cost alternative to running high speed lines to your facility.


Combination (Combo) Sale


Subscriptions to two or more publications or a magazine and another product (such as a book), sold in combination at a special price. Audit bureau rules governing combination sales were changed in 2001, along with the definition of paid circulation, to allow more flexibility in structuring these offers.




A payment to a subscription sales agency, usually a percentage or dollar amount per sub sold. The agency collects from the subscriber, deducts the commission and remits the balance to the publisher. (Also see Remit.)


Communication Error


The failure of a Web browser/Web server to successfully request/transfer a document.


Companion Ad


Both linear and non-linear ads have the option of pairing their core video with what it’s commonly referred to as a companion ad. Companion ads are commonly text, display ads, rich media, or “skins” that wrap around the video experience. They can run alongside either (or both) the video or ad content. The primary purpose of the companion ad is to offer sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video. Companion ads may offer click-through interactivity and rich media experiences such as expansion of the ad for further engagement opportunities.




The demographic profile of a magazine.


Confidence Level


The likelihood that the sampling error in a survey result will fall within a specified range, usually expressed in terms of standard errors (e.g. 1 standard error equals 68% likelihood; 2 standard errors equals 95% likelihood).



Confirmation or Order Confirmation


A Web page and/or email that is delivered to a consumer to
confirm their purchase decision. It will include details about pricing and quantity of items ordered, shipping method, and delivery date, and may also include a bounceback offer for other goods and services.




A consolidator accepts internationally destined mail for deposit within a type of mail service, such as ISAL (see definition). By combining mail from more than one source, consolidators are often able to obtain volume discounts. A consolidator also usually provides convenience services for the mailer, such as preparing paperwork and obtaining permits.


Consumer Marketing Director


Within consumer publishing companies, now the preferred title for the position traditionally known as circulation director.




An address book or a name and address book (NAB) is a book or a database used for storing entries called contacts. Each contact entry usually consists of a few standard fields. Most systems store the details in alphabetical order of people's names. 


Content Integration


Advertising woven into editorial content or placed in a contextual envelope. Also known as "Web advertorial".


Contextual Ad


Delivers text and image ads to non-video content pages. These ads are matched to keywords extracted from content. Advertisers can leverage existing keyword-based paid search campaigns and gain access to a larger audience. Third-party publishers receive a share of the revenue collected from the advertisers.




A type of offer in which the consumer agrees to review new editions of or variations on a product and purchase a contracted number of these over a specified time period. (Examples include CD's periodically offered within a music club or recipe cards sent by a cooking club.)


Continuous Service


Also referred to as automatic renewal and 'til forbid. An agreement in which a subscriber allows the publisher to continue to renew the publication at expire, using the subscriber's initial credit card authorization, or through automatic billing, until the subscriber informs the publisher to stop. Some subscription agencies make CS offers through credit card invoice stuffers and other sources, and a growing number of publishers are testing and rolling out CS because of its potential for reducing costs and increasing profitability.




In direct mail promotional testing, the basic package against whose results other packages are compared. Usually, the control is the winning package in a previous test or tests.


Controlled Circulation


The circulation of a magazine that is sent free and addressed to specific individuals who elect to receive the publication.




Any first-time renewal, or the process of converting nonpaid subscribers to paid subscribers. (This term is also used online to express the conversion of clicks to orders.)


Conversion or Click-to-conversion


A calculation to express the percentage of users who took the
desired action after viewing an online advertisement (banner, text link or other Web promotional spot) from an internet Web site, or from an email promotion. Expressed as a percentage of clicks (clicks divided by orders). For example, when a product is advertised, the conversion rate would reflect the percentage of users who viewed, and then purchased the product.


Convertible Tablet


The transformer of tablets, it is a type of tablet that can turn in a way so that it has a keyboard.




A cookie is a small amount of data generated by a website and saved by your web browser. Its purpose is to remember information about you, similar to a preference file created by a software application. 


Cookie Buster


Software that blocks the placement of cookies on a user’s browser.




Printed text in an advertisement.


Cost Per Thousand (CPM)


A figure used in comparing /evaluating the relative cost efficiency of media; the advertising cost of reaching 1,000 readers. (e.g. ABC magazines Page 4C cost = $25,000. It reaches 1,000,000 Women, age 35-44. Its CPM for Women 35-44 is: $25,000/1,000,000 = $25).



Cost Ranking Report


A ranking of magazines based on reach, composition, CPM, or a variety of other variables to a specific target group. (e.g.. ABC magazine is ranked #1 because it reaches more Men, age 18-24 than any other publication).


Cost-Per-Point (CPP)


The cost of delivering one GRP. Formula: CPP= media cost/GRPs.


Cost-Plus or Cost-to-Serve Model


A new type of payment structure for wholesalers being advocated by some publishers. Publishers, instead of wholesalers, would have the primary relationships with retailers. Wholesalers would be paid for performing delivery and other specified services based on their actual costs plus a margin.


Count Audit


See activity audit.


Cover Wrap


Also called a wrap or wrapper. An additional cover stapled or glued to a magazine, most often used for circulation and other promotional messages. Many business magazines, and some consumer titles, use wraps as efforts in their renewal or requalification series, and occasionally on sample copies as new-business promotions. Although wraps are often used on the final issue of an expiring sub, they are also increasingly used as supplementary, earlier efforts, even by consumer titles. (Also see Tip-On.)




The percentage of a population group reached by a magazine.


Coverage Area


The geographic area within which a carrier provides service. The area within which a phone will complete calls using that carrier's network, or partner networks.




Acronym for cost per action, a method of charging for online advertising often used when an advertiser places a banner or text link on a site other than their own. Advertiser will pay a set fee for every gross order that is garnered in response to their banner(s) or text link(s).




Acronym for cost per click, a method of charging for online advertising often used when an advertiser places a banner or text link on a site other than their own. Advertiser will pay a set fee every time a consumer clicks on their banner(s).


CPL (Cost-Per-Lead)


Cost of advertising based on the number of database files (leads) received.




Acronym for cost per thousand, often used in relation to list-rental prices. The ad cost divided by the circulation minus the last three zeroes. CPM is the standard unit of measure in online advertising.


CPM Pricing Model


Pricing model based on the cost of delivering ad impressions. See CPM and pay-per-impression.




Acronym for cost per order. The sum of all production and media costs (creative, printing, lettershop, postage, etc.) divided by the total number of orders received.


CPS (cost-per-sale)


The advertiser's cost to generate one sales transaction. If this is being used in conjunction with a media buy, a cookie can be offered on the content site and read on the advertiser's site after the successful completion of an online sale.


CPT (Cost-Per-Transaction)


See CPO (cost-per-order).


CPTM (Cost Per Targeted Thousand Impressions)


Implying that the audience one is trying to reach is defined by particular demographics or other specific characteristics, such as male golfers age 18- 25.The difference between CPM and CPTM is that CPM is for gross impressions, while CPTM is for targeted impressions.




A software program which visits virtually all pages of the Web to create indexes for search engines. They are more interested in text files than graphic files. See also spider, bot, and intelligent agent.


Credit Copies


Copies served on subs ordered on credit, in expectation of payment. These copies can be reported as paid on publisher audit statements only if payment is received. (Also referred to as Good-Faith Copies.)




Customer relationship marketing. Marketing specifically targeted to increasing brand loyalty.


Cross Platform


Software that can run on multiple types of computer systems. 



In single-copy sales, the joint display of magazines and other consumer goods, usually in the area of the store in which related goods are traditionally displayed (such as baby magazines in the diaper aisle). Cross-merchandising exploits natural synergies between magazines and related consumer products to heighten awareness and bolster sales of the products and the publications.

CSC (Common Short Code)


Short numeric numbers (typically 4-6 digits) to which text messages can be sent from a mobile phone. Wireless subscribers send text messages to common short codes with relevant keywords to access a wide variety of mobile content.


CTR (click through rate) or Click Percent


A calculation to express the percentage of clicks resulting from a banner, text link or other Web promotional spot from an internet Web site, or from an email promotion. For Web promotions, expressed as a percentage of impressions (clicks divided by impressions); for email promotions, expressed as a percentage of messages sent (clicks divided by messages sent). See also "Click through."




The cursor on your screen can indicate two things: 1) where your mouse pointer is, or 2) where the next character typed will be entered in a line of text. 




An application for jailbroken iOS devices that allows for the purchase and installation of 3rd party extensions or apps that Apple does not allow in the App Store. 


Go to top




Apple introduced single panel on the home screen of a tablet that provides simple visual status information pulled from a variety of sources. Dashboard is a user-interface feature It allows access to all kinds of "widgets" that show the time, weather, stock prices, phone numbers, and other useful data. 


Data Providers


Third parties offering behavioral, demographic, psychographic, and social graph data to enhance ad targeting and pricing decisions on ad exchanges.




A database is a data structure that stores organized information. Most databases contain multiple tables, which may each include several different fields.


Database Marketing


Using relational computer systems that allow for maintaining multi-product purchasing history and all other data on a customer. This allows all data on the customer to be readily accessed and cross-referenced for marketing purposes, including cross-selling and upselling.


Daughter Window


An ad that runs in a separate ad window associated with a concurrently displayed banner. In normal practice, the content and banner are rendered first and the daughter window appears thereafter.


Dedicated Server


A server that is owned and hosted by an ISP or hosting facility, but dedicated to one customer's site(s). ISP's typically grant the customer greater access privileges on these servers as they are unable to access data belonging to other customers like in a shared environment.




This term is used to describe a preset value for some option in a computer program. It is the value used when a setting has not been specified by the user.


Default Program


A default program is an application that opens a file when you double-click it. If the file opens in Microsoft Word, then Microsoft Word is the default program.




A kill or cancel, sometimes initiated by the subscriber or, particularly with controlled titles, by the publisher. Agency cancels (see definition) are an exception.


Demographic Edition


An edition carrying additional, targeted advertising and/or editorial matter that is distributed to a specific, demographically defined segment within a magazine's circulation.




Common characteristics used for population or audience segmentation, such as age, gender, household income, etc.


Designed For Tablet


(Designed for Tablet) Editorial or advertising content where the page on the screen has been re-designed specifically for reading on the tablet and is meant to be displayed at 100% (that is, there is no need to tap and zoom).


Desktop Computer


A desktop computer (or desktop PC) is a computer that is designed to stay in a single location. It may be a tower (also known as a system unit) or an all-in-one machine, such as an iMac. 


DFU Mode


Device firmware update mode, most commonly used to exploit and gain access to iOS in order to jailbreak. Requires holding down the sleep/wake button for 3 seconds, while holding down the Home button for 10 seconds, releasing the sleep/wake and continuing to hold Home for 5 or more seconds until the screen goes black. 




Acronym for Dynamic Hypertext Mark-up Language. DHTML is an HTML extension. It allows web designers to control elements on a web page with a combination of HTML and Javascript or other scripting. The scripting in turn allows web pages to react to the end users' input, such as displaying a web page based on the type of browser or computer end users are viewing a page with.


Dial Up


Dial-up refers to an Internet connection that is established using a modem. The modem connects the computer to standard phone lines, which serve as the data transfer medium. When a user initiates a dial-up connection, the modem dials a phone number of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that is designated to receive dial-up calls. The ISP then establishes the connection, which usually takes about ten seconds and is accompanied by several beeping and buzzing sounds. 


Digital Direct Marketing


Direct digital marketing, also known as "DDM," is a type of marketing that is done exclusively through digital means. It may be used to supplement or even replace traditional physical marketing strategies. The primary channels of direct digital marketing include e-mail and the Web.


Digital Signatures


Signatures for electronic documents. They establish identity and therefore can be used to establish legal responsibility and the complete authenticity of whatever they are affixed to- in effect, creating a tamper-proof seal.


Digital Video Server


A robust, dedicated computer at a central location that receives command requests from the television viewer through a video-on-demand application. Once it receives this request, it then instantly broadcasts specific digital video streams to that viewer.




When you "digitize" something, you convert it from analog to digital.


Direct Debit


A customer may instruct his or her bank to authorize an organization (such as a publisher) to collect regular or occasional payments from that customer's bank account as long as the customer has been provided with advance notice of the collection amounts and dates. Common in Europe; still uncommon in the U.S.


Direct Distribution


In single-copy sales, an alternative to the traditional mass-market distribution system that bypasses the wholesaler and, in some cases, the national distributor. Direct distributors oversee the parcel shipping of specific numbers of magazine copies to individual stores. Often, retailers receive a larger discount off cover price under the direct system. The direct system covers many major bookstore and discount chains and specialty stores, but traditionally has not reached supermarkets and other major mass-market magazine outlets.


Direct Entry


Entering mail directly into another country's mail stream for delivery within that country. Also known as ABB remailing. (Also see Remailing.)


Direct Mail Agency


Commissionable agencies that use direct mail co-op packages to sell subscriptions to magazines from various publishing companies. Publishers Clearing House uses sweepstakes promotions and stampsheets (showing one title per stamp), from which the subscriber makes a selection; hence the nickname stampsheet agent.


Direct Message


Also called a DM, these messages are private between only the sender and recipient. Tweets become DMs when they begin with “dm user name” to specify who the message is for.


Direct Request


Often shortened to request. The most desirable type of controlled circulation, from most advertisers' point of view. Direct request circulation consists of qualified individuals who have verified, in writing or over the telephone or online, their qualification and desire to receive the publication.


Directory Source


A type of controlled circulation source in which qualified individuals' names are pulled from directories and added to the circulation file. Publishers generally seek to minimize the percentage of directory circulation and to convert directory names to direct request (see Direct Request).




Successful download giving the user an opportunity to see.




Acronym for Domain Name Server. A Domain Name Server translates human readable domain names, such as, to machine readable IP addresses such as


Dock Port


Apple’s 30-pin interface used to connect apple products to a Mac or Windows PC via USB for syncing or to connect to a variety of accessories for charging, audio, video, and more. 


Domain Name


The unique name that identifies an Internet site. Every domain name consists of one top or high-level and one or more lower-level designators. Top-level domains (TLDs) are either generic or geographic. Generic top-level domains include .com (commercial), .net (network), .edu (educational), .org (organizational, public or non-commercial), .gov (governmental), .mil (military); .biz (business), .info (informational),.name (personal), .pro (professional), .aero (air transport and civil aviation), .coop (business cooperatives such as credit unions) and .museum. Geographic domains designate countries of origin, such as .us (United States), .fr (France), .uk (United Kingdom), etc.


Domestic Mail Manual (DMM)


The DMM is the comprehensive U.S. Postal Service guide to rules and regulations, including the sizes and formats allowable within various classes of mail.




The purchaser of a gift subscription. (Also see Non-Subscribing Donor.)


Doorway Page


Standard web pages that contain a high concentration of very specifically targeted keywords. Doorway pages do not contain any real content; their main purpose is to rank highly in search results. Once users arrive at the doorway page, they are referred to the actual site being marketed. The use of doorway pages has decreased in recent years as search engines have learned to ignore them.


Double Opt-In


Action of a consumer reaffirming their privacy options; e.g., the consumer might opt-in to a permission by checking a box, then be asked to confirm this decision in a separate action. This is considered a good qualifier for permissions because the consumer has been asked to take multiple actions to choose then confirm their permission.


Double Postcard


A form of self-mailer (see definition) derived from the U.S. Postal Service double postcard, which includes a postpaid tear-off reply card. The Domestic Mail Manual (see definition) outlines the format specifications.


Double Tap


A user gesture (for tablets) used to zoom in or out of content - consists of two quick taps.


Doubling Date


The date by which a marketer anticipates that one-half of the orders/responses will have come in after mailing.


Down Arrow Button


On an eReader, used to turn to the next page. 




To transfer a file from another computer to your computer. Opposite of Upload.


DPO (Distinct Point of Origin)


A unique address from which a browser connects to a Web site on the Internet.




You can use your mouse, or finger by tapping and holding, to drag icons and other objects on your computer screen. 




Also termed an allotment. In single-copy sales, the number of copies of each issue of a particular title that are distributed to specific wholesalers and retail outlets. Determined on the basis of a title's sales history or typical sales of similar titles in a specific store or area.


Drill Down


When an online user accesses more and more pages of the Web site, i.e., he or she goes deeper into the content of the site.




Any subscription leaving the subscription list. Also used to mean drop date, the day a mailing is entered in the postal stream.


Drop Down Menu


A drop down menu is horizontal list of options that each contain a vertical menu. When you roll over or click one of the primary options in a drop down menu, a list of choices will "drop down" below the main menu. 




Having magazines trucked from the printing plant to a regional U.S. Postal Service facility in order to save money by qualifying for lower zoned rates. One form of work-sharing (see definition) with the USPS in order to reduce distribution costs. Also used by direct distributors when delivering magazines to individual retail outlets.


DRTV (Direct Response Television)


Some consumer and paid business titles use television commercials as one subscription source. This is generally quite expensive, but may be costeffective under certain circumstances. May be desirable for raising a title's awareness with potential readers and advertisers, as well as helping to attract new subscribers




Demand side platforms are the latest evolution in the online advertising technology landscape. There is still much debate about what is and what is not a true DSP. In basic terms, a DSP is a platform that gives the customer control to buy inventory across sites, networks, ad exchanges, data providers, or other vendors and then layer on their own proprietary data.


Dunning Letter


Letter accompanying an invoice that is late in being paid.




The number/percentage of readers that two or more magazines have in common.


Dynamic Ad Placement


The process by which an ad is inserted into a page in response to a user's request. Dynamic ad placement allows alteration of specific ads placed on a page based on any data available to the placement program. At its simplest, dynamic ad placement allows for multiple ads to be rotated through one or more spaces. In more sophisticated examples, the ad placement could be affected by demographic data or usage history for the current user.


Dynamic IP Address


An IP address that changes every time a user logs on to the Internet.


Dynamic Rotation


Delivery of ads on a rotating, random basis so that users are exposed to different ads and ads are served in different pages of the site.


Go to top




Refers to an invoice sent via email.


E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce)


Refers to conducting business on the Internet, including selling and purchasing products online.


E-mail Alias


An alternative name for a more complex email address. A choice of alias can be anything from a corporate name, a business department or a personal nickname. For example ‘John Doe’ could be an alias for ‘’


E-mail Auto Responders


A feature of the ISP's email server that allows you to provide automatic replies to messages sent to a specific account.


E-mail Campaign


Advertising campaign distributed via e-mail.


E-mail Forwards


An email address that automatically forwards messages to another physical email address. The forwarding address can be any valid email address on the internet. These types of addresses provide forwarding capabilities only; there is no way to send or receive mail using these accounts.


E-mail or Email


Refers to communications sent via a system that allows people to send messages to each other by computer.




A newsletter delivered electronically to a recipient's e-mail inbox.




A premium delivered electronically. Often in .pdf format, which the recipient can then print on their own computer printer. Can also be an .exe file (exectutable file - a program that does things on your computer).




Refers to a renewal sent via e-mail.


E-Text Format


A handheld device specialized for reading electronic books. Unlike tablet computers, one of the major advantages of e-book readers is their extremely long battery life, up to a month in some cases.




(Electronic-BOOK) The electronic counterpart of a printed book, which can be viewed on a desktop computer, laptop, smartphone or e-book reader. When traveling, a large number of e-books can be stored in portable units, dramatically eliminating weight and volume compared to paper. Electronic bookmarks make referencing easier, and e-book readers may allow the user to annotate pages.




Acronym for email change-of-address. (Often used in database management operations for online business.)




(Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution - or GSM Evolution) A 2.5G digital data service provided by GSM cellular carriers worldwide, including AT&T and T-Mobile in the U.S. Also called "Enhanced GPRS" (EGPRS), EDGE works on EDGE cellphones as well as laptops and portable devices that have EDGE modems. Superseding the GPRS data service, EDGE users have experienced downstream data rates up to 200 Kbps. See cellular, cellular vs. Wi-Fi, GSM and GPRS. 




Sub-versions within a given magazine issue's print run and distribution. For example, a magazine may have separate editions for subscriber versus newsstand copies, U.S. versus Canadian copies, or by region or certain types of audience demographics.


Edition Split


A document showing the number of copies of a magazine issue that comprise each edition.


Efficiency or Efficiency Level


See Sell-Through.




Any individual promotion to a subscriber or prospect. A new business, qualification, renewal or requalification, or billing series will comprise several efforts.




(Enhanced for Tablet) Adding enhancements and bonus content for DFT editorial or advertising content to more fully utilize the tablet medium (e.g. hotspots, photo slide shows, video, audio, in-app browser)




E Ink (electrophoretic ink) is a specific proprietary type of electronic paper manufactured by E Ink Corporation, founded in 1997 based on research started at the MIT Media Lab. It is currently available commercially in grayscale and color and is commonly used in mobile devices such as e-readers and, to a lesser extent, mobile phones and watches. 


Email Append


Also referred to as e-append. Email append is the process of merging a database of customer information where the email addresses are missing for the customers, with a service provider's database of email addresses in an attempt to match the email address with the information in the initial database.




The act of adding code to a website so that a video or photo can be displayed while it’s being hosted at another site. 




These are the little text-based faces and objects that you often see in e-mail and online chat. They help give the reader a sense of the writer's feelings behind the text. : )  




(Enhanced Message Service) An extension to the SMS short message service for cellphones that allows for the transmission of formatted text, icons, animations and ringtones. Introduced in the summer of 2001 by Alcatel, Ericsson, Motorola and Siemens, it allows up to 17 SMS messages to be strung together.




A hardware or software applicationf used to compress audio and video signals for the purpose of streaming.




Encoding is the process of converting data from one form to another.




Encryption is the coding or scrambling of information so that it can only be decoded and read by someone who has the correct decoding key.




To put a subscriber name or subscription record on the file. This does not mean to start service. (See Start.)




A generic term for an extremely thin flexible display that can be rolled up. There are several technologies in the works, and this type of display is expected to become mainstream by 2015.




A generic term for an extremely thin flexible display that can be rolled up. There are several technologies in the works, and this type of display is expected to become mainstream by 2015.




(Electronic Publication) An open standard for electronic books and Web publishing from the International Digital Publishing Forum. Introduced in 2007 as the successor to the Open eBook format, EPUB documents are marked up in XHTML or Digital Talking Book (DTBook).


Error Message


A message from computer program (e.g., SQL*Plus) informing you of a potential problem preventing program or command execution.





Ethernet is the most common type of connection computers use in a local area network (LAN). An Ethernet port looks much like a regular phone jack, but it is slightly wider. This port can be used to connect your computer to another computer, a local network, or an external DSL or cable modem. 




A method to network computers together in a local area network (LAN).




The unified banking currency that has become the national currency of European Union countries.




A payment option used widely in Europe. A Eurocheque can be written in most European currencies on a bank that is part of the system.




(Evolution-Data Optimized) A 3G digital service provided by CDMA cellular carriers worldwide such as Verizon and Sprint in the U.S. EV-DO works on EV-DO cellphones as well as laptops and portable devices that have EV-DO modems. Part of the CDMA2000 standards, EV-DO users have experienced data rates up to 800 Kbps typically with more latency than DSL and cable service. EV-DO is also known as "1xEV-DO"


Exclusive Readers


Readers who read one magazine but not another .


Expandable Banners


A banner ad which can expand to as large as 468 x 240 after a user clicks on it or after a user moves his/her cursor over the banner. See for the IAB IMU guidelines.


Expire Drop


A subscription or group of subscriptions removed from the active file when they have expired. Sometimes, expires receive one or more grace copies (see definition) before being dropped.




As a verb, what happens when a subscription reaches the end of the period paid for without renewing. As a noun, a subscription or group of subscriptions that run out on a certain date (the January expires). Expires may also refer to a list of expired subscribers. Because expires are prime prospects for new offers, expire lists (also called hold lists) are valuable commodities.




Instead of simply saving a file with a different name or different format, "export" might be used to save parts of a file, create a backup copy of a file, or save a file with customized settings. 




Reference to the number of people who view, or "lay their eyes on" a certain advertisement.




A rich-media ad developed via eyeblaster technology.


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Facebook is a social networking website that was originally designed for college students, but is now open to anyone 13 years of age or older. Facebook users can create and customize their own profiles with photos, videos, and information about themselves. Friends can browse the profiles of other friends and write messages on their pages.


Facebook Subscriber


A Facebook feature that allows for users to follow public updates from users outside of their network of friends- generally, celebrities, high profile bloggers, journalists or artists. There is no limit limit on the number of people who can "subscribe" to your content. When you unfriend someone, they stay subscribed to your updates. The Subscribe button allows you to unfriend people and still reach them via public updates.


Facebook Timeline


Facebook Timeline is the new default profile populated from a list of your most recent updates to a complete summary of your entire life since birth. It includes photos, videos, status updates and locations you have visited. The new Facebook profile is divided into two main columns, with a line down the middle representing the passage of time. Users are encouraged to add life events which were not captured by Facebook, particularly those that occurred before the person joined Facebook. Timeline uses an algorithm to assess the most important moments of your life, which can then be edited to your satisfaction. Unwanted updates can be hidden from the Timeline.




Apple's video calling app for the iPhone and iPod touch. See iPhone 4. 


Failure to Transfer


Content requested by a browser can fail to transfer if the page is abandones by the browser which requested it (see abandon) or if the server is unable to send the complete page, including the ads (known as an error or a communications error).


FairPlay DRM


FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) technology created by Apple Inc. FairPlay is built into the QuickTime multimedia software and used by the iPhone, iPod, iPad, Apple TV, iTunes, and iTunes Store and the App Store. Formerly, all songs in the iTunes Store were encoded with FairPlay. Apple later started offering a selection of songs that, after an additional 50 cents is paid per song, could be downloaded FairPlay-free. Currently, Apple does not sell songs with FairPlay encryption. FairPlay digitally encrypts AAC audio files and prevents users from playing these files on unauthorized computers.


Family/Ad Family


A collection of one or more ad creatives. Also called ad campaign.


Fast Apps Switcher


Apple’s "toggle" button. 




While most Web browsers store saved webpage locations as bookmarks, Internet Explorer saves them as favorites. For example, when you save a webpage location in Firefox, it gets stored as a bookmark. When you save one in Internet Explorer, it gets stored as a favorite. For this reason, the terms "bookmarks" and "favorites" are often used synonymously. 


Featured Phones


A cellphone that contains a fixed set of functions beyond voice calling; however, it is not in the smartphone category. For example, feature phones may offer Web browsing, but they cannot download and install applications from an online marketplace. See smartphone.




Transmission of informations, as to a database.


Field Force


In single-copy sales, a group of representatives maintained by a national distributor (see definition) or a large publisher. A marketing field force gets authorizations (see definition) from retailers. A circulation field force over-sees the execution of planned distributions to retailers.


File Compression


"Data compression," is used to reduce the size of one or more files. When a file is compressed, it takes up less disk space than an uncompressed version and can be transferred to other systems more quickly. 


File Extension


A file extension (or simply "extension") is the suffix at the end of a filename that indicates what type of file it is. 


File Format


A file format defines the structure and type of data stored in a file. The structure of a typical file may include a header, metadata, saved content, and an end-of-file (EOF) marker.


File Server


As the name implies, a file server is a server that provides access to files. It acts as a central file storage location that can be accessed by multiple systems.




The process of removing robotic activity and error codes from measurement records to make the remaining records representative of valid human Internet actions.


Filtration Guidelines


IAB voluntary guidelines for remove non-human activity in the reported measurement of ad impressions, page impressions, unique visitors and clicks. See for ad campaign measurement guidelines.


Finder Number


A unique number that identifies and becomes part of each name and address on a mailing list. When the order is received, the fulfillment operation uses the number to locate the name on the mailing list and input that record to the mainfile (see definition).




The web browser developed by Mozilla Corporation that promotes itself as faster, more secure, and more customizable than Microsoft's Internet Explorer. Tabbed browsing in Firefox lets you load web pages in separate tabs of a single browser window.




A combination in hardware and software buffer that many companies or organizations have in place between their internal networks and the internet. A firewall allows only specific kinds of messages from the internet to flow in and out of the internal network. This protects the internal network from intruders or hackers who might try to use the internet to break into those systems.




This high-speed interface has become a hot new standard for connecting peripherals. Created by Apple Computer in the mid-1990's, Firewire can be used to connect devices such as digital video cameras, hard drives, audio interfaces, and MP3 players  to your computer. A standard Firewire connection can transfer data at 400 Mbps, which is roughly 30 times faster than USB 1.1.


First Class


The U.S. Postal Service class of mail that provides the most timely delivery and is therefore the most expensive class, outside of express service. Occasionally, a direct mailer will choose to use first class for speed or impact purposes, instead of the usual Standard A service class. Invoices must be sent first class or attached to a magazine issue (see Attached Renewal/Invoice). The BRE and BRC are also first class return mail.




Flaming is the act of posting or sending offensive messages over the Internet. These messages, called "flames," may be posted within online discussion forums or newsgroups, or sent via e-mail or instant messaging programs.  




A method for designing low-badwidth animations, presentations and Web sites. It is a browser plug-in developed by Macromedia for developing Rich Internet Applications. Flash applications can be as simple as an animated logo, or as complicated as a full browser based application. Flash uses a vector graphic format to keep files small.


Flash Downloading


The ability to automatically send software upgrades to a set-top box network.


Flash Memory


Flash memory is a type of electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The name comes from how the memory is designed -- a section of memory cells can be erased in a single action or in a "flash." A common use of flash memory is to store the BIOS settings in a computer's ROM. When the BIOS needs to be changed, the flash memory can be written in blocks, rather than bytes, making it easy to update. Most modems use flash memory for the same reason. 


Flash Site


A website where the entire interface is built using Flash instead of HTML markup. A drawback to Flash sites are that they cannot be viewed unless the user has installed the Flash plug-in.




Flickr is an image hosting and video hosting website, web services suite, and online community created by Ludicorp and later acquired by Yahoo!. In addition to being a popular website for users to share and embed personal photographs, the service is widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs and social media. Yahoo has reported that Flickr has a total of 51 million registered member and 80 million unique visitors.




User gesture used to scroll or pan quickly. To flick, users place a finger on the screen and quickly swipe it in the desired direction. See speed swiping. 




A gesture done on a touchscreen where an image can be flipped to reveal additional pictures in the same place (metaphorically, these new pictures are "on the back side" of the original picture.  


Floating Ads


An ad or ads that appear within the main browser on top of the Web page's normal content, thereby appearing to "float" over the top of the page.




An ad or content that is viewable as soon as the Web page arrives. One does not have to scroll down (or sideways) to see it. Since screen resolution can affect what is immediately viewable, it is good to know whether the Web site's audience tends to set their resolution at 640 x 480 or at 800 x 600 (or higher)




Just like real world folders, folders on your hard drive store files. These files can be documents, programs, scripts, libraries, and any other kind of computer file you can think of. Folders can also store other folders, which may store more files or other folders, and so on.




To follow someone on Twitter means to subscribe to their Tweets or updates on the site.




A follower is a Twitter user who has kept track of another Twitter account or a "Tweeter."


Force Quit


Forcing an application or program to quit - most commonly used when the program has frozen. Usually done by holding down the Ctrl + Alt + Delete keys. 


Forced Free Trial


A short-term, free subscription sent without request to targeted prospects with the goal of converting them to paid subscribers, most frequently used by newsletters. Because of their high production and mailing costs, magazines are more likely to use sampling (see definition) than FFT's.


Frame Rate


The number of frames of video displayed during a given time. The higher the frame rate, the more high-quality the image will be.




Multiple, independent sections used to create a single Web page. Each frame is built as a separate HTML file but with one "master" file to control the placement of each section. When a user requests a page with frames, several files will be displayed as panes. Sites using frames report one page request with several panes as multiple page requests. IAB ad campaign measurement guidelines call for the counting of one file per frame set as a page impression.




Also called a love gift. An item given free of charge to a prospect as an incentive. Freemiums are not directly tied to a magazine or product purchase. In other words, they are true gifts, as opposed to premiums contingent upon an order or payment of an order.




Freeware is software you can download, pass around, and distribute without any initial payment. However, the great part about freeware is that you never have to pay for it. 




The number of times per year that a magazine is published.




A person who has joined a profile as a result of an invitation.


Friendly URL


A friendly URL is a Web address that is easy to read and includes words that describe the content of the webpage. 


From Address or From Name


Indicates the sender of an email message. See also "Email alias."


Front Facing Webcam


The camera on a webcam that is facing you.




Acronym for free-standing insert, meaning an insert that is polybagged with or tipped or blown into an issue.




Acronym for File Transfer Protocol, a way of transferring or exchanging files over the internet from one computer to another.




An all-inclusive term referring to the numerous tasks involved in creating, updating and maintaining an active subscriber list and producing the mailing labels and necessary statistics and reports for auditing and marketing purposes. Fulfillment is accomplished either through an outside supplier a fulfillment bureau (also called a fulfillment house or fulfillment service) or internally, with purchased or self-developed software packages, hardware and an in-house staff. Each in-house and outside system or bureau has its own capabilities and specialties.


Full-Cover Display


The most desirable position within a mainline display (see definition) at retail, in which the entire cover of the magazine is visible.


Fully Qualified Domain


Comprised of a hostname, domain name, and top-level domain. For example in www is the host name, weather is the domain name and .com is the top-level domain name.


Future Starts


New subscriptions, entered with instructions to start service with some future issue. When that issue has been printed, the computer automatically starts these subscriptions. An example is a Christmas gift subscription intended to start with the January issue.


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Game Center


Game Center is an online multiplayer social gaming network released by Apple. It allows users to invite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game through matchmaking, track their achievements, and compare their high scores on a leader board.




An entity on a LAN that provides address translation and control access to the LAN for terminals and gateways. The gatekeeper also can provide other services to the terminals and gateways, such as bandwidth management and locating gateways. A gatekeeper maintains a registry of devices in the multimedia network. The devices register with the gatekeeper at startup and request admission toa call from a gatekeeper.




A gateway is either hardware or software that acts as a bridge between two networks so that data can be transferred between a number of computers. 


Geo Tagging


Geotagging is the process of adding geographical identification metadata to various media such as a geotagged photograph or video, websites, SMS messages, or RSS feeds and is a form of geospatial metadata. These data usually consist of latitude and longitude coordinates, though they can also include altitude, bearing, distance, accuracy data, and place names. It is commonly used for photographs.


Gesture Recognition


Many newer devices now include sensors which enable the use of gestures that involve the whole device. Since they are not obvious to users, they must be easily discovered or communicated clearly. 




Acronym for graphics interchange format; a type of bitmap image file format that is popularly used on the internet. Files in this format will have the extension .gif at the end of the file name. Prounounced jiff or giff. GIF images are limited to 256 colors which makes them better suited for illustrations than photographs.


GIF89a/ Animated GIF


An extension of the .gif format which creates animation through a sequence of images being stored in a single image. A delay is customizable between frames to render the appearance of the animation, much like a flappable picturebook




One gigabyte equals 1000 megabytes.


Giro (Postal Giro)


A method of payment used widely in other countries. A giro account is set up at a bank or post office, and funds are electronically transferred from one account to another.




A term used in some foreign countries. Indicates that the addressee is no longer at that address.


Good-Faith Copies


See Credit Copies.




Google is the world's most popular search engine. It began as a search project in 1996 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who were two Ph.D. students at Stanford University. They developed a search engine algorithm that ranked Web pages not just by content and keywords, but by how many other Web pages linked to each page. This strategy produced more useful results than other search engines, and led to a rapid increase in Google's Web search marketshare. The Google ranking algorithm was later named "PageRank" and was patented in September of 2001. In only a short time, Google became the number one search engine in the world. 




(General Packet Radio Service) The first data service for GSM cellular carriers. GPRS added a packet capability to GSM, which uses dedicated, circuit-switched channels for voice conversations. 




Stands for "Global Positioning System." GPS is a satellite navigation system used to determine ground position and velocity (location, speed, and direction). Though it was created and originally used by the U.S. military, GPS is now available to the general public all over the world. GPS navigation systems are currently installed in a number of luxury cars, complete with an LCD map that shows the driver exactly where in the world he is. Advanced car GPS units can actually speak the directions to a certain destination and tell the driver when to turn. 


Grace Copies


Copies served to subscribers retained on an active subscription list after expiration. (Also called Arrears.)


Gross Exposure


The total number of times an ad is served, including duplicate downloads to the same person.


Gross Rating Points (GRP's)


see Rating Point.


Gross Response


Also called response or return. The total number of prospects who order a subscription from a given promotion effort or series, expressed as a percentage of total promotions sent. (Also see Net Response.)


Group Subscriptions


Subscriptions sold in quantity to companies or organizations.


GUI (Graphical Image Format)


A way of enabling users to interact with the computer using visual icons and a mouse rather than a command-like prompt/interpreter.




A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. Although this orientation does not remain fixed, it changes in response to an external torque much less and in a different direction than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the disk's high rate of spin and moment of inertia. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted. 


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Hack (Hacking)


While this term originally referred to a clever or expert programmer, it is now more commonly used to refer to someone who can gain unauthorized access to other computers. A hacker can "hack" his or her way through the security levels of a computer system or network. This can be as simple as figuring out somebody else's password or as complex as writing a custom program to break another computer's security software. Hackers are the reason software manufacturers release periodic "security updates" to their programs. While it is unlikely that the average person will get "hacked," some large businesses and organizations receive multiple hacking attempts a day. 




A username on Twitter.




Term used in reference to a mobile phone, mobile device or mobile terminal.




Communicating with a computer or other electronic device via touch. Today's touch screens, which have revolutionized smartphones and tablet computers, are the prime examples of haptic interfaces. See touch screen.


Hard Offer


A promotion that does not treat the first issue or first several issues as a no-obligation trial. The subscriber is not given the option of canceling the subscription when the first invoice arrives, and is expected to pay for the full subscription when billed. (Can also apply to credit card-only offers.)




Short messages on services such as Twitter or may be tagged by including one or more hashtags: words or phrases prefixed with a pound sign (#) 


HD - High Definition


Television formats that have a higher resolution than their contemporary counterparts. It refers to any video system of higher resolution than standard-definition (SD) video, and most commonly involves display resolutions of 1,280×720 pixels (720p) or 1,920×1,080 pixels (1080i/1080p). 




"High-Definition Multimedia Interface." HDMI is a digital interface for transmitting audio and video data in a single cable. It is supported by most HDTVs and related components, such as DVD and Blu-ray players, cable boxes, and video game systems. 




A way to measure a user's unique identity. This measure uses deduction or interference based on a rule or algorithm which is valid for that server. For example, the combination of IP address and user agent can be used to identify a user in some cases. If a server recieves a new request from the same client within 30 minutes, is inferred that the new request comes from the same user and the time since the last page request was spent viewing the last page. Also referred to as interference.


High-Resolution Screen


A large amount of information per square inch on a display screen or printed form. Measured in dots per inch (dpi), the more dpi, the higher the resolution and quality. Monitors (both CRTs and flat panels) are in the 70-120 dpi range whereas printers are in the 300-1200 dpi range. Imagesetters typically print at 1270 or 2540 dpi. 


History Lists


A pull-down menu which displays the sites you've recently visited so you can return to the site instantly or view your latest session. The same mechanism makes it possible for servers to track where you were before visiting a particular site.




When analyzing web server log files, a hit is any request for a particular site. In addition to actual web page requests, hits include things such as images, scripts and style sheets.


Home Page


The page designated as the main point of entry of a Web site (or main page) or the starting point when a browser first connects to the internet. Typically, it welcomes you and introduces the purpose of the site, or the organization sponsoring it, and then provides links to other pages within the site.


Home Screen


The first screen of information displayed when a PDA, smartphone or tablet is started. Also called the "home page" and "main menu," it typically displays a group of icons that are clicked or tapped to activate applications and internal functions. 




Any computer on a network that is repository for services available to other computers on the network, or a computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network. It is quite common to have one host machine provide several services. A host has an IP address associated with it.


Hot Spot

See WiFi.

Hot Swap


To pull out a component from a system and plug in a new one while the main power is still on. Also called "hot plug" and "hot insertion," hot swap is a feature of USB devices, allowing an external drive, network adapter or other peripheral to be plugged in without having to power down the computer first. 




Pull-down or pop-up menus often displayed on browsers or search engines that contain new or popular sites.


House Ads


Ads for a product or service from the same company. "Revenues" from house ads should not be reported in reported revenues.


House List


A list of buyers of one or more of a company's titles/products.




(High Speed Packet Access) A family of high-speed 3G digital data services available to GSM carriers worldwide. The service works with HSPA cellphones as well as laptops and portable devices with HSPA modems. Although based on WCDMA, HSPA is a major enhancement with more channels and different modulation and coding techniques.




Acronym for Hypertext Markup Language, code that tells a web browser how to display an electronic page or message (for example, code that makes a word on an electronic page or message appear in bold face). HTML is a page formatting language that defines the appearance of Web pages. HTML-coded pages or messages incorporate color, special font treatments and a variety of graphics that may be static or moving. The text or graphics within the page or message can be made "live" ("clickable") to link directly to a URL (web page address). HTML standards are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).




A HyperText Markup Language document stored in a directory on a web server and/or created dynamically at the time of the request for the purpose of satisfying that request. In addition to text, an HTML page may include graphics, video, audio and other files.




HyperText Transfer Protocol. HTTP is a standard for communication between a client and server. One use of HTTP is for browser to web server communication on the World Wide Web. HTTP standards are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)




HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure. The protocol used for secure, encrypted, communication over the World Wide Web. HTTPS is typically used when sending credit card or other sensitive information via the internet.


Hybrid Pricing


Pricing model which is based on a combination of a CPM pricing model and a performance-based pricing model. See CPM pricing model and performance-based pricing model.




HTML programming which redirects the user to a new URL when the individual clicks on the hypertext.




In computing, a hyperlink (or link) is a reference to a document that the reader can directly follow, or that is followed automatically. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. A software system for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, and to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink (or simply to link). A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext. 




Hypermedia is an extension of hypertext that allows images, movies, and Flash animations to be linked to other content. 




Text or graphical elements on a page which activates a hyperlink when clicked.


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Acronym for Interactive Advertising Bureau; they attempt to set standard banner sizes for the industry and act as an information resource to online advertisers. In their own words: The IAB is the only association dedicated to helping online, Interactive broadcasting, email, wireless and Interactive television media companies increase their revenues.




iBooks is an e-book application by Apple Inc. It was announced in conjunction with the iPad on January 27, 2010, and was released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in mid-2010, as part of the iOS 4 update.




The iBookstore is an ePub content sales and delivery system that delivers e-books to the iPad and to other devices running iOS 4.0 (namely the iPhone and the iPod touch). The iBooks shelf turns around, revealing the iBookstore. From here users can purchase various books from Apple. iBooks can sync between devices, so one could start reading a book on one device and continue from where one left off on another. 




Acronym for Internet Explorer browser. Web developers and designers often use this acronym.


iFrame (inline frame)


A floating frame inserted within a web page which is not bound to the side of a browser window.




Internet Information Services is a popular web server from Microsoft Corporation. IIS comes bundled with Microsoft server operating systems such as Windows NT Server and Windows 2000 Server.




Transitions in apps use motion perception and perceptual constancy to create a flying effect for objects on the screen.


Image Map


A GIF or JPEG image with more than one linking hyperlink. Each hyperlink or hot spot can lead to a different destination page.




"Internet Message Access Protocol" It is a method of accessing e-mail messages on a server without having to download them to your local hard drive. This is the main difference between IMAP and another popular e-mail protocol called "POP3."




The IMEI number of your iPhone is unique. IMEI stands for International Mobile Equipment Identity. It is static (it never changes) and identifies your iPhone. All mobile phones have an IMEI number.




Instead of opening standard file types, Import is often used for importing parts of files, program settings, plug-ins, or other unconventional file formats.




The standard ad unit sizes endorsed by IAB. 


In-Home Readers


People who read a magazine in their own home.


In-stream Video Ads


Ads played before, during or after the streaming video content that the consumer has requested. Usually, these ads are not able to be paused or stopped (particularly with pre-roll) by the viewer.  This format is frequently used to monetize the video content that the publisher is delivering. In-stream ads can be played inside short or long forms video and rely on video content for their delivery. There are four different types of video content where in-stream may play: UGC (user-generated content/video), syndicated, sourced, and journalistic.


In-Tab Sample


The number of completed interviews or respondants to a survey.


In-Unit Click


A measurement of a user-initiated action of responding to an ad element which generally causes an intra-site redirect or content change. In-unit clicks are usually tracked via a 302 redirect. Also known as click-downs, click-ups and click-withins.




The percentage above or below the national average a percent in relation to a norm of 100%. (e.g.. A magazine with an index of 145 means that the magazine is 45% higher than the norm).


Information Architecture


Categorization of information into a coherent structure; the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities, and software to support findability and usability. 




An invisible band of radiation at the lower end of the visible light spectrum. With wavelengths from 750 nm to 1 mm, infrared starts at the end of the microwave spectrum and ends at the beginning of visible light. Infrared transmission typically requires an unobstructed line of sight between transmitter and receiver. 




Actual placement of an ad in a document, as recorded by the ad server. 


Insertion Order


Purchase order between a seller of interactive advertising and a buyer (usually an advertiser or its agency). 


Installment Billing


Allowing a subscriber to pay in installments. Usually offered by magazines whose annual price tends to be perceived as high (weeklies, for instance) and frequently offered in direct mail agency (see definition) subscription promotions. Payments are not spread over the life of the subscription, but are collected in full during the first three to four months. Not to be confused with paid during service (see definition).


Intelligent Agents


Software tools which help the user find information of specific interest to him/her. The user’s profile is continually refined and improved based on the user's acceptance or rejection of recommendations over time.




Describes behavior of the computer and program designed to respond to the user's request. Interaction between computer and user may take place through typed commands, voice commands, mouse clicks or other means of interacting.


Interactive Advertising


All forms of online, wireless and interactive television advertising, including banners, sponsorships, e-mail, keyword searches, referrals, slotting fees, classified ads and interactive television commercials.


Interactive Advertising Revenues


Revenues realized from the sale of interactive advertising.




An assumption. See heuristic.




A common way to compress video is to interlace it. Each frame of an interlaced video signal shows every other horizontal line of the image. As the frames are projected on the screen, the video signal alternates between showing even and odd lines. When this is done fast enough, i.e. around 60 frames per second, the video image looks smooth to the human eye.


Internal Page Impressions


Web site activity that is generated by individuals with IP addresses known to be affiliated with the Web site owner. Internal activity that is associated with administration and maintenance of the site should be excluded from the traffic or measurement report.


International Business Reply Service


An international service available between reciprocating countries for postpaid business reply mail.


International Mail Manual (IMM)


The comprehensive U.S. Postal Service guide to rules and regulations for international mailing, including requirements for specific countries.




A worldwide system of computer networkd providing reliable and redundant connectivity between disparate computers and systems by using common transport and data protocols.


Internet Directory


A human-compiled directory of Internet links, which are divided into categories by subject. The most popular internet directories are Yahoo and The Open Directory.


Internet Explorer


Web browser developed by Microsoft Corporation. 




An advertising image, text page or video that is inserted into the middle of a MMS message. This image, text, or video will be displayed as the subscriber is viewing the complete MMS message.




A network based on TCP/IP protocols that belongs to an organization, usually a corporation, and is accessible only by the organization's members, employees or others with authorization.




A fulfillment report that is a computer print-out of all of a magazine's subscriptions, usually tabulated by expire issue, price, term or source, without individual names and addresses. Used for source analysis and budgeting. Not to be confused with inventories of promotional materials, which should be referred to as stock.


Inventory Profile


A series of monthly inventories, summarized by source.



(iOS) (iPhone OS) The operating system in Apple's mobile devices. See iOS versions. 

IP (Internet Protocol)


A protocol telling the network how packets are addressed and routed.




Apple’s first tablet device announced in January 2010 and released in April 2010. Runs a modified version of iOS optimized for its larger screen.




A smartphone from Apple that integrates cellphone, iPod, camera, text messaging, e-mail and Web browsing. Data and applications can be sent to the phone wireless or via Apple's iTunes software, which is used to organize music, videos, photos and applications (see iTunes). 


iPhone 3GS


In June 2009, the 3G S was introduced with a faster processor, video camera, voice phone dialer and improved battery life. The iPhone 4, which debuted in June 2010, added multitasking, much higher resolution and video calling (see iPhone 4). Version 4 of the OS also added multitasking to the 3G S, but not previous models. 


iPhone 4


iPhone announced early in 2010 and released June 24 of the same year. Major new features included an A4 processor, Retina Display, front facing camera, and an all new design.


iPod Touch


A flash-based iPod from Apple that is essentially an iPhone without the phone. Introduced in 2007, the first iPod touch models came with up to 16GB of flash memory later increased to 32GB and beyond. The touch broke away from the illustrious click wheel that helped make the iPod successful and replaced it with a touch screen interface and one physical button. In 2008, a thinner touch added a speaker, physical volume control and increased battery life. 




Stands for in-plane-switching which basically means you get a good view of what’s on the screen even if you’re looking at it from an acute angle. 




Generally refers to video programming offered by telecom companies over copper wire. Often misused to refer to PC-based video.




Acronym for introductory slotting allowance/introductory pocket offer. A one-time payment made to the retailer for display placement. Publishers have always paid these allowances. Retailers also ask wholesalers to pay such fees on some titles.


ISAL (International Surface Air Lift)


A bulk service for printed matter and small packets provided by the U.S. Postal Service. ISAL has a growing number of competitors.




Acronym for Internet Service Provider, a company that provides access to the internet.




All copies of a magazine of the date given on the cover. This is not necessarily the on-sale date (see definition).


Issue Date


The date a magazine begins its distribution to readers, which usually precedes the cover date.


Issue Life


The length of time it takes a magazine to be read by the maximum measurable audience.




iTunes is a proprietary digital media player application, used for playing and organizing digital music and video files. The application is also an interface to manage the contents on Apple's iPod and iPhone lines, as well as the iPad.


iTunes Connect


Where you submit your apps to be approved by Apple. 


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Breaking open the root jail apple uses to secure iOS, allowing a used to customize the device and install apps outside of the app store.




A programming language designed for building applications on the Internet. It allows for advanced features, increased animation detail and real-time updates. Small applications called Java applets can be downloaded from a server and executed by Java-compatible browsers like Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator.




Is a programming language designed by Sun Microsystems, in conjunction with Netscape, it can be integrated into standard HTML pages. While JavaScript is based on the Java syntax, it is a scripting language, and therefore cannot be used to create stand-alone programs. Instead, it is used mainly to create dynamic, interactive Web pages. 


Jiggly Mode


Term referring to the "jiggling" state of your icons when depressed enabling you to move them around or removing them (specifically to iOS apps) 




Primarily employed by spammers, the practice of sending email from someone else’s account.




Acronym. Joint Photographic Experts Group, who developed this graphics format. JPG files are used on the Internet for photographs, or other images. Files in this format will have the extension .jpg or .jpeg at the end of the file name. Pronounced jay-peg. JPG is the preferred format for storing photographic images on the World Wide Web. File format that uses a compression technique to reduce the size (number of bytes) of graphic files.


Jump Page Ad


Microsite which is reached via click-through from button or banner ad. The jump page itself can list several topics, which are linked to either the advertiser's site or the publisher's site.


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The code that appears somewhere on each direct order form, which identifies the promotion that produced that order. Key denotes mini-source. (See Source.)




Word or phrase that is commonly used to refer to a particular subject. When working with search engine optimization, marketers work to have their pages rank high for the words that visitors would use to refer to their products and services. For the search engine user, the keyword will help them locate the information they seek.


Keyword Search Revenues


Fees advertisers pay to retrieve the hyperlink opportunity to the advertiser’s site or to serve an ad related to the user’s search.




HTML layout engine developed by the KDE project - hence the name "K"HTML - used in the Safari web browser. 




A portable e-book reader from that includes free wireless downloads using Sprint's 3G cellular service. It also provides basic Web access along with music storage and playback. The Kindle features a 6" screen, except for the DX model, which has an iPad-sized 10" display. 


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The amount of time between making an online request or command and receiving a response. See latency.




A (Local Area Network) is a computer network limited to a small area such as an office building, university, or even a residential home. Most mid to large-sized businesses today use LANs, which makes it easy for employees to share information. 


Landing page / Splash page


Refers to the promotional or informational page people are sent to when they click on a banner, button, text link or other promotional response device on the Web.


Landscape View


A page or layout that is wider than it is tall. Most monitors have a landscape display, while most documents are printed in portrait mode. 



1) time it takes for a data packet to move across a network connection; 2) visible delay between request and display of content and ad. Latency sometimes leads to the user leaving the site prior to the opportunity to see. In streaming media, latency can create stream degradation if it causes the packets, which must be received and played in order, to arrive out of order.



Stands for "Liquid Crystal Display." LCDs are super-thin displays that are used in laptop computer screens and flat panel monitors. Smaller LCDs are used in handheld TVs, PDAs, and portable video game devices. The image on an LCD screen is created by sandwiching an electrically reactive substance between two electrodes. This color of this substance can be changed by increasing or reducing the electrical current. Since LCD screens are based on the principle of blocking light (rather than emitting it), they use up much less power than standard CRT (Cathode-Ray Tube) monitors. 


LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)


(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) If you want to make directory information available over the Internet, this is the way to do it. LDAP is a streamlined version of an earlier directory standard called X.500. What makes LDAP so useful is that it works great over TCP/IP networks (unlike X.500), so information can be accessed through LDAP by anyone with an Internet connection. It is also an open protocol, which means directories can be stored on any type of machine.


Leaderboard Ad


Standard IAB ad size 728x90




Content that is all about watching TV on the couch and passively consuming content. 




Implies a deeper engagement with the content, rather than just passive consumption - the type of content that you'd share with your friends on Facebook, tweet about on Twitter and interact with in real-time. 




"Light-Emitting Diode." An LED is an electronic device that emits light when an electrical current is passed through it. LEDs are commonly used for indicator lights (such as power on/off lights) on electronic devices. 


Lift Note/Lift Letter


Refers to a folded promotional device (note or letter) found in a direct mail package that often helps lift response by providing more information or sell copy about the magazine. In a magazine promotion, this device may be called the Publisher's Letter, as it is generally signed by the publisher.


Linear Video Ad


A linear video ad is experienced in-stream, which is presented before, between, or after the video content is consumed by the user. One of the key characteristics of linear video ads is the ad takes over the full view of the video.




When you are browsing the Web and you see a highlighted and underlined word or phrase on a page, there is a good chance you are looking at a link. By clicking on a link, you can "jump" to a new Web page or a completely different Web site. While text links are typically blue and underlined, they can be any color and don't have to be underlined. Images can also serve as links to other Web pages. When you move the cursor over a link in a Web page, the arrow will turn into a little hand, letting you know that it is a link. The term "hypertext" comes from the way links can quickly send you to another Web destination. 


Linux Hosting


The intermediary between list renters and list owners.


Linux Hosting


Linux hosting is when the ISP hosts your site(s) on servers running a variety of the open source linux operating system. Linux hosting is typically significantly less expensive than Windows hosting because the ISP is not required to pay licensing fees for each server.


List Hygiene


Everything that goes into ensuring that lists are clean and deliverable, including the correctness and non-duplication of names and addresses.


List Manager


The in-house or outside professional or company responsible for marketing a list and/or maintaining, cleaning and enhancing that list.




A mailing list comprised of e-mail addresses.




A program that automatically sends e-mail to a list of subscribers or listserv.


Live Date


The date when an online promotion becomes active.




Usually used with up-load or down-load, it means to transfer files or software from one computer or server to another computer or server. In other words, it is the movement of information online.


Load Balancing


The management and control of the distribution if inbound IP traffic to multiple servers by shifting from a more heavily loaded resource to a less loaded resource. Load balancing with multiple servers enhances performance and minimizex the effects of a single server failure or a huge influx of incoming traffic.


Load Time


The time it takes for a Web page to display on a user’s browser. The file size of the page and the power of the end user’s computer will both predicate the load time. The bigger the file, the longer it may take to load. The more powerful the end user’s computer, the quicker it will take to load.


Local Host


"Localhost" refers to the local computer that a program is running on. 


Local Service Area


The geographic area within which a wireless subscriber can call without incurring roaming or long distance charges.




A file that keeps track of network connections.


Log Files


Web servers record the date, time and other important information for each request into text files called logs. These logs can be used by log analyzing software to provide detailed traffic statistics for your site.




If you are ever asked to enter your username and password, you are being asked to enter your login information. A login is a combination of information that authenticates your identity. This could be a name and password or an ID number and security code. 




 (Long Term Evolution) is a 4G networking technology currently being deployed by Verizon and scheduled to be deployed by AT&T, Canadian carriers, and others. Theoretical speeds are measured in the hundreds of Mbps but initial implementations haven’t reached those yet. Likewise initial implementations only use LTE for data while future versions could be pure IP-based for both voice and data. Neither iPhone nor iPad yet support LTE. 


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A term referring to mobile commerce which is the ability to conduct monetary transactions via a mobile device, such as a WAP-enabled cell phone.


MAC Address


A MAC address is a hardware identification number that uniquely identifies each device on a network. The MAC address is manufactured into every network card, such as an Ethernet card or Wi-Fi card, and therefore cannot be changed.


Mac OS


This is the operating system that runs on Macintosh computers. It is pronounced, "mack-oh-es." The Mac OS has been around since the first Macintosh was introduced in 1984. Since then, it has been continually updated and many new features have been added to it.




A multi-page direct mail piece that resembles a magazine and includes samples of typical issue content, as well as promotional copy and an order device.


Mail Preference Service


(Or Email or Telphone Preference Service) See suppression file.



Mailing List


An automatically distributed e-mail message on a particular topic going to certain individuals.


Main-file or Master-file


The master computer record (tape, disk, card or plate) of a magazine's subscriber list. Contains name, address and other information, such as price and term, expire issue, start issue, payment status and sales method. Controlled magazines' master- files contain extensive demographic data. Database systems make it possible to maintain transaction histories and a plethora of other data. Frequently, some expires are maintained on the mainfile as inactive records.




A large magazine rack or reading center displayed within interior aisles of supermarkets and other retail outlets. It may be a wall fixture or a free-standing rack in the middle of a store aisle. For publishers, mainline is not as desirable as checkout display (see definition).




In single-copy sales, a specific request for an additional quantity of a title to be allotted to a wholesaler or retailer.




A publication that misses rate base (see definition) over a period of time or prints a poor reproduction of an ad will generally offer to republish the ad at no extra cost to the advertiser, or reduce or cancel the fee for the affected advertising.




Short for "malicious software," malware refers to software programs designed to damage or do other unwanted actions on a computer system.




The section of a magazine which details such information as title, address, staff.




When you maximize a window on your computer screen, it becomes larger. 




The sum of all items divided by the number of items. Also referred to as "average"


Media Compression


Like file compression, the goal of media compression is to reduce file size and save disk space.


Media Objects


Files, other than HTML documents, which can be displayed or executed within HTML documents, or in a stand-alone fashion. Examples currently include GIFs, JPEGs, video, audio, Flash objects (SWF), PDF, Java applets, and other objects which can be viewed through a browser or using a “plug-in” (see plug-in).


Media Quadmap


A two-dimensional graph profiling the media usage (e.g. heavy magazine readers and light tv viewers) of demographic groups, product users, or other qualities.




The  middle number in a sequence of numbers. Also knows as the "midpoint"




A million bytes.




Computers store data in digital format, which means the information can always be called up exactly the way it was stored. While memory can refer to any medium of data storage, it usually refers to RAM, or random access memory. When your computer boots up, it loads the operating system into its memory, or RAM. This allows your computer to access system functions, such as handling mouse clicks and keystrokes, since the event handlers are all loaded into RAM. Whenever you open a program, the interface and functions used by that program are also loaded into RAM.


Menu Bar


A menu bar is a horizontal strip that contains lists of available menus for a certain program. 




A row of menu titles typically located at the top of the application's window on screen. The File menu is often the first menu title on the menu bar.




To combine two or more lists by computer, eliminating all but one of the duplicated names so that the prospective subscriber will not receive duplicate copies of the same promotion.


Message Board


A message board is an online discussion site. It originated as the modern equivalent of a traditional bulletin board. People participating in an internet forum may cultivate social bonds and interest groups for a topic surrounding the discussions.


Meta Crawler / Meta Search Engine


A program for locating pages on the internet. A meta search engine uses an programmatically compiled index as opposed to a manual compiled index. Some popular meta search engines are Google, Yahoo, Ask, and Microsoft.


Meta Data


Business-critical data such as advertiser name, effective cost per thousand impressions (eCPM) goal, format, and version information.


Meta Tag


An HTML tag that can be used to provide information about a page to a search engine; the tag is invisible to the user. Some common information placed into meta tags might be page description and relevant keywords.


Metcalfe's Law


The value of a network increases geometrically with the number of people who use it.




Differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically much smaller in both actual size and aggregated file size. A micro-blog could consist of nothing but a short sentence fragment, an image, or embedded video. (E.g. Twitter)




Payment scheme used exclusively on the Internet, normally for very small denominations (as low as a fraction of a cent). Used with pass-though transaction processing to quickly perform payment transfers for high volume, low cost soft goods.




For additional primary storage compatible with a Micro SD rather than a standard SD card. The storage would typically be used on a tablet PC to have additional music, video and documents on a Micro SD card that can be slotted in-and-out of the device when needed. 




Separate “site within a site” that may stand on its own or link out from a primary site. Has its own site map and pages.


Microsoft Tag


A Microsoft Tag connects almost anything in the real world to information, entertainment, and interactive experience on your mobile phone. Microsoft Tags are a new kind of 2D bar code that can be displayed anywhere. You can add a Microsoft Tag to your print ads, posters, direct mail pieces, product packages, flyers, website, billboard, clothing, etc.




Microtransactions are small transactions, perhaps of the order of a cent. They are being considered for digital content on the web (a magazine selling an article (unbundled) rather than an entire issue (bundled with additional information that may not be of interest to the consumer). This may then open up additional revenue streams for the content providers.




Port that takes a microUSB connector allowing you to connect the tablet PC to other PCs and for charging it via a power socket.




A linear video that appears in the middle of the video content.


Mini Browser


In wireless phones, built-in software that allows the user to access special Internet sites using their phone. While nearly all browsers in phones can view sites made especially for phones, only some can also display "full" web sites. 




When you minimize a window, you hide it from view. This is commonly done to unclutter the display or to view other open windows without closing the current window.


Missing E


A browser extension for Tumblr that allows the user to access features that are not inherently included with Tumblr, such as automatic reblogging and wrapped tags.


MMS (Multimedia Messages)


Stands for "Multimedia Messaging Service." MMS is mobile phone service that allows users to send multimedia messages to each other. This includes images, videos, and sound files.




(Mobile Blogging) Sending text, images, audio or video from a cellphone or other mobile device to a blog or Web site. The advent of multimedia texting (MMS) and cellphone cameras inspired moblogging. 




A circulation model is any mathematical simulation used to forecast overall financials and circulation levels or revenue. Although most modeling today is done with computers, some companies still work models manually, with spreadsheets. List modeling is the practice of using statistical tools, such as regression analysis (see definition), to identify particularly good or poor prospects for the purpose of enhancing response.




Shorthand for modulator/de-modulator, a hardware device that allows a computer to transmit and receive information over telephone lines. A modem converts digital data from computers into analog data that can be transmitted over the telephone lines. Traditional modems can carry data at speeds of up to 56Kbps.


Modem Speeds


The speed at which one connects to the Internet through his/her computer's modem. There are dial-up and cable modems. The dial-up modem speeds include 14.4, 28.8, 33.6, 56K and ISDN. Cable modem speeds range between 500 K and 2.5 Mbps. T1 and T3 are high-speed connections that do not require a modem.




In computing, "monochrome" typically refers to a two-tone image, rather than one with several shades of a single color.




The process by which a user places his/her mouse over a media object, without clicking. The mouse may need to remain still for a specified amount of time to initiate some actions.




An open source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation. Mozilla is the browser upon which Netscape Navigator is based.




Stands for "MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3." MP3 is popular compressed audio file format that helped popularize digital music downloads beginning in the late 1990s. MP3 files are typically about one tenth the size of uncompressed WAVE or AIFF files, but maintain nearly the same CD-quality sound. Because of their small size and good fidelity, MP3 files have become a popular way to store music files on both computers and portable devices like the iPod.




The file format that is used to compress and transmit movies or video clips online. For video, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 are the most common. Most popular video formats are based on one of those two technologies, with MPEG-4 being the newer, more efficient standard.


MRC (Media Rating Council)


A non-profit trade association dedicated to assuring valid, reliable and effective syndicated audience research. The MRC performs audits of Internet measurements as well as traditional media measurements.




MT refers to "Modified Tweet," and is used to signify that a tweet that is being re-tweeted has been modified.




When a recipient’s browser capabilities are unknown, software is used to detect the user's browser capabilities, such as bandwidth, JavaScript, plugins and screen resolution. That in turn enables an email message to be delivered in the appropriate format, such as text or html. Because the format is unknown at the time of transmission, these messages go out as “multi-part” messages. Once the recipient’s email capabilities are know, the message can henceforth be sent as text or html. See also “Sniffer.”




Is processing multiple tasks at one time. A computer's CPU can handle many processes at one time with complete accuracy. However, it will only process the instructions sent to it by the computer's software. 


Multibuyer List


A list of duplicate names found on several direct mail lists, which is a byproduct of a merge/purge (see definition). These are sometimes subdivided into two hits, three hits or more, depending on the number of matches. Because these are the most productive prospect names, it is frequently economical to remail to them one or more times after the main mailing. List brokers can arrange for this.




Multicasting is similar to broadcasting, but only transmits information to specific users. It is used to efficiently transmit streaming media and other types of data to multiple users at one time. 


Multichannel Customer/Multichannel Marketing


The avid buyer whose purchase behavior indicates they are likely to respond to any variety of promotional media such as catalog, 800#, Web site or retail outlet. Multichannel marketing refers to a promotional scheme aimed at contacting customers via a variety of promotional media to provide multiple exposure messages for goods and services.




Multimedia is the integration of multiple forms of media. This includes text, graphics, audio, video, etc. For example, a presentation involving audio and video clips would be considered a "multimedia presentation." 


Multimedia eBook


A multimedia ebook is media and book content that utilizes a combination of different book content formats. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content formats) or as an adjective describing a medium as having multiple content formats. 




If a software program is developed for multiple operating systems, it is considered to be "multiplatform."  


Multitouch screen


Refers to a touch sensing surface's (touchscreen) ability to recognize the presence of two or more points of contact with the surface.




Mobile uploading a picture from your smartphone to the internet.


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NAI (Network Advertising Initiative)


A cooperative group of network advertisers which has developed a set of privacy principles in conjunction with the Federal Trade Commission. The NAI provides consumers with explanations of Internet advertising practices and how they affect both consumers and the Internet. See for more information.


National Change of Address (NCOA)


An address correction service that the U.S. Postal Service provides to mailers through USPS licensees. The licensees match mailing lists submitted to them on tape or disk against change-of-address information for the entire country from all Computerized Forwarding System units. NCOA can correct an address before it is used on a piece of mail.


National Distributor


In single-copy sales, the organization that advances publishers money for an issue, bills and collects for copies going to wholesalers and retailers, performs other fiduciary functions, acts as the publisher's liaison with wholesalers and retailers, prepares distribution and marketing plans, oversees planned distributions, acquires retail authorizations, and performs other marketing functions.


Native Application


A native application (native app) is an application program that has been developed for use on a particular platform or device. The term is often mentioned in the context of mobile computing because, traditionally, mobile applications have been created to work on a specific device platform. A native application is installed on the device and responds more quickly than a Web application because the interface is more direct. Because they’re written for a particular platform, native apps can interact with and take advantage of features of the operating system and other software that is typically installed with that platform.




A system of hypertext paths that enable a user to move throughout a Web site or within a Web page. Navigational elements take you to the main sections of the site; you can also use links on each page to navigate. Some pages have a chain of links along the top of the page that show you where you are in the site's hierarchy. It helps to have consistent navigation on every page of your site so that visitors will find their way around your site easily in response to consistent visual cues.


Navigation Bar


A navigation bar is a user interface element within a webpage that contains links to other sections of the website. In most cases, the navigation bar is part of the main website template, which means it is displayed on most, if not all, pages within the website. 


Net Paid Circulation


The ciculation of a magazine which is accounted for by copies paid for either through single copy newsstand sales or through subscription.


Net Response


The total number of subscription orders from a given promotion that are actually paid for or qualified, expressed as a percentage of total promotions sent. (Also see Gross Response.)




A list rental agreement in which, after merge/purge (see definition), the renter pays only for the names that are not already on the renter's file.




A term that is used to describe the informal rules of conduct ("do's and don'ts") of online behavior.


New Business


New subscriptions (as opposed to renewals/requalifications).




An electronic bulletin board devoted to talking about a specific topic and open to everybody. Only a handful of newsgroups permit the posting of advertising.




A newsreader is client software or a web application which aggregates syndicated web content such as news, headlines, articles, blogs, podcasts, and video blogs into a single location for easy viewing. Newsreaders offer users the ability to curate content from their favorite sources: social connections, publishers you trust or both. Newsreaders capture this information within a beautiful display and gives users the ability to share their favorite stories instantly across platforms or bookmark them for later. Newsreaders are accessible on mobile devices, tablets, and desktops.


Newsstand Sales


An alternate term for single-copy sales (see definition).




Direct mail pieces returned by the Postal Service as undeliverable.


Non-Linear Video Ad


A non-linear video ad runs parallel to the video content so the user still has the option of viewing the content. Common non-linear ads include overlays, which are shown directly over the content in the video itself, and product placements, which are product promotions placed within the video content itself. Non-linear video ads can be delivered as text, graphical banners or buttons, or as video overlays.


Non-Subscribing Donor


A person who gives a subscription but does not order his or her own subscription at the same time (including a subscriber with a different expiration date than the gift recipient). To differentiate between donors who are or are not subscribers to the publication, regardless of order or expire date, the terms Donor On List (DOL) and Donor Not On List (NNL) are sometimes used. Office of the Consumer Advocate (OCA): A body within the PRC (see definition) that represents the interests of the general public in proceedings such as U.S. Postal Service rates and reclassification cases.


Nonqualifying Page Impressions


Page impressions which should be excluded from traffic or measurement reports, such as unsuccessful transfers of requested documents, successful transfers of requested documents to a robot or spider, and/or pages in a frame set. See frames.


Nonregistered User


Someone who visits a Web site and elects not to, or is not required to, provide certain information, and hence may be denied access to part(s) of the site.


Nook Button


Takes you to the NOOK Home menu.


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Stands for "Original Equipment Manufacturer." This refers to a company that produces hardware to be marketed under another company's brand name. 


Off-Sale Date


The date that the copies of a particular issue of a magazine are due to be pulled off of retail displays.


Off-site Measurement


When a site forwards its log files to an off-site Web research service for analysis.


Offsite Backup


Offsite backup is when an ISP or hosting facility stores their backup media at a remote location. Offsite backup will help to protect your data in the event of a disaster, such as a fire, that destroys the hosting facility.


On-Sale Date


The date that an issue of a given title is scheduled to be put up on display in retail outlets.


On/Off Report


A report prepared by the fulfillment operation, or by the circulation manager, from data supplied by fulfillment. Shows subscribers added to and deleted from the magazine's mainfile for each issue. A useful historical record.




Term that has come to mean "connected to the internet."


OPA (Online Publishers’ Association)


Trade association representing a segment of online publishers. See for more information.


Open Rate


The open rate for an email message is the number of messages opened divided by the number of messages sent. Open rates are only counted for HTML (see definition) messages or those with PDF or other attachments that need to be opened to be read. The images that are to be used within an HTML message are stored on a server. Within an HTML email message, there is an embedded image reference that is invisible to the recipient. When the message is opened, the image reference calls the Web server to load the images. A script is executed on the server that records the activity, and this is how tracking software counts the number of opened messages. Some software packages identify the recipient and will only count the recipient's activity once; others will count every time the images are called from the server, even if the same recipient is opening the message more than once. There is no mechanism for counting the open rate for text messages because there are no images to recall.


Open Source


When a software program is open source, it means the program's source code is freely available to the public. Unlike commercial software, open source programs can be modified and distributed by anyone and are often developed as a community rather than by a single organization. For this reason, the phrase "open source community" is commonly used to describe the developer of open source software development projects. 


Open Source Software


A computer software whose source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that permits users to use, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form.




Web browser developed by Opera Software. The opera browser comes in two versions, a commercial version, which can be purchased and downloaded online, and advertising supported version which can be downloaded for free online.


Operating System


This is the software that means your tablet piece of hardware turns into a usable computer system that you can use without huge amounts of technical knowledge. In the tablet PC world the best known operating systems are Windows, Android and iOS (used on an Apple iPad).




Because of consumer privacy concerns and government regulations, responsible direct marketers give individuals the choice of having their names or email addresses removed or omitted from a list or database. This is particularly critical when a list is made available to other companies for outside solicitations. There are many variations of opt-outs and opt-ins. Essentially, an opt-out provides a box to be checked in order to be removed from or not placed on the list. The opt-in is a more stringent method, in which the customer or pro-spect must actually give affirmative notice that he/she wants to receive third-party messages or future promotions/communications from the publisher itself. Those promoting to or exchanging data with European countries must now abide by The European Union's Directive on Data Protection and/or the EU/US Safe Harbor agreement in order to avoid legal and logistical complications. Order Regulation: Computerized retailer-by-retailer draw/sale data, maintained by the wholesaler. Increasingly important as publishers strive to adjust draws (see definition) to raise sell-throughs (see definition).




A computer reach and frequency analysis which generate an "optimal" schedule given a specific set of parameters, i.e., budget level, reach goal, etc.


Organic search


Refers to ALT and meta tagging done on a Web site to increase the likelihood of that site being found by spiders or crawlers that fuel search engine results.


OTA (Over The Air)


“Over The Air” In general, any wireless system that uses open space as its transmission medium, including TV, Wi-Fi and cellular. 


OTS (Opportunity to See)


Same as page display: when a page is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.


Out-of-Home Readers


Those people reading a magazine outside their own homes.


Outer or OE


The outer envelope of a direct mail piece.




A page or card enclosed with a magazine in a polybag (see definition) and used for circulation promotion purposes. Similar to a cover wrap (see definition), but not attached to the magazine. (Also called an onsert.)


Outward Code/Inward Code


The two portions of the postcode used in certain countries (such as the U.K. and Canada). The first part of the code (outward) directs mail to the sorting area. The second part (inward) directs the mail at the local sortation level.




Consumer or business data (generally from compiled sources) that is added to or overlaid on a marketer's customer or prospect list in order to improve targeting and cost-efficiency.


Ownership Statement


A statement that every publication with Periodicals-class mailing privileges must print once per year. In addition to company ownership, the statement spells out how many copies of a magazine, on average, have been printed, sold through agents or by mail, or distributed free during the past 12 months, and those numbers for the issue nearest to the statement's filing date. The statement is also the only public source of newsstand returns data.


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Stands for "Peer to Peer." In a P2P network, the "peers" are computer systems which are connected to each other via the Internet. Files can be shared directly between systems on the network without the need of a central server.




Acronym for Platform Privacy Preference, developed by the World Wide Web Consortium. P3P is emerging as an industry standard providing a simple, automated way for users to gain more control over the use of personal information on Web sites they visit. At its most basic level, P3P is a standardized set of multiple-choice questions, covering all the major aspects of a Web site's privacy policies. Taken together, they present a clear snapshot of how a site handles personal information about its users. P3P-enabled Web sites make this information available in a standard, machine-readable format. P3P enabled browsers can "read" this snapshot automatically and compare it to the consumer's own set of privacy preferences. P3P enhances user control by putting privacy policies where users can find them, in a form users can understand, and, most importantly, enables users to act on what they see.


Packet Sniffer


A program used to monitor and record activity and to detect problems with Web transactions on a network.




See Web Page.


Page Display


When a page is successfully displayed on the user's computer screen.


Page Impression


A measurement of responses from a Web server to a page request from the user’s browser, which is filtered from robotic activity and error codes, and is recorded at a point as close as possible to the opportunity to see the page by the user. See for ad campaign measurement guidelines.


Page Layout


Page layout refers to the arrangement of text, images, and other objects on a page. The term was initially used in desktop publishing (DTP), but is now commonly used to describe the layout of webpages as well. 


Page Length


Length of a page on a users’ computer screen. Page length is affected by the size of the user’s screen as well as their display settings.


Page Orientation


Page orientation is the direction in which a document is displayed or printed. 


Page Rank


Technology used by Google to determine the quality of a page, and in turn, the position where it appears in Google search results.


Page Request


The opportunity for an HTML document to appear on a browser window as a direct result of a user's interaction with a Web site.


Page Views


The number of times a user requests a page; indicative of the number of times an ad was potentially seen, or "gross impressions." Note: this is not measurable today; the best approximation today is provided by page displays.


Paid During Service (PDS)


A source in which the agency sells a subscription to a group of magazines to a consumer, who agrees to be billed monthly for the life of the subscription. Today, the sale is usually by phone and the billing by mail, instead of in person, as in the past.


Paid Single Issues


Tablet issue access via the purchase of a single issue from a digital newsstand.


Partnership Sold-Subscriptions


Subscriptions sold with another product or service, in partnership with an outside marketer.


Passalong (Secondary) Readers


Readers who obtain the magazine second hand, (i.e. from a reception room, from a friend/neighbor, etc.)




Unique string of characters that a user types as an identification code to restrict access to computers and sensitive files. The system compares the code against a stored list of authorized passwords and users. If the code is legitimate, the system allows access at the security level approved for the owner of the password. See also “Username.”


Pay As You Go


Essentially another term for pre-paid, meaning service that is paid in advance, as-needed, instead of billed at the end of each month (post-paid). Since service is paid for in advance, there is no generally no need for contracts or credit checks with pay-as-you-go. 


Pay-On Sale/Pay On Scan (POS)


See Scan-Based Trading.




An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many users clicked on an online ad or e-mail message.




An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay based on how many users were served their ads. See CPM pricing model.




An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay for each "sales lead" generated. For example, an advertiser might pay for every visitor that clicked on an ad or site and successfully completed a form. See CPL.




An advertising pricing model in which advertisers pay agencies and/or media companies based on how many sales transactions were generated as a direct result of the ad. See CPS.




A calculation to express the number of prospects who responded to a promotion and then paid for the magazine or product. Expressed as net versus gross, pay-up includes credit pays (customers who are billed and pay the bill) plus cash (those who pay by credit or bank card).




Stands for "Personal computer." PCs are what most of us use on a daily basis for work or personal use. A typical PC includes a system unit, monitor, keyboard, and mouse.  




A (Personal Digital Assistant) is a handheld device with organizer and basic computing functions. Most PDAs have a large touch-screen. Many also have a stylus and support handwriting recognition.




Stands for "Portable Document Format." PDF is a multi-platform file format developed by Adobe Systems. A PDF file captures document text, fonts, images, and even formatting of documents from a variety of applications. You can e-mail a PDF document to your friend and it will look the same way on his screen as it looks on yours, even if he has a Mac and you have a PC. Since PDFs contain color-accurate information, they should also print the same way they look on your screen.




Peopleware include individual people, groups of people, project teams, businesses, developers, and end users. While peopleware can mean many different things, it always refers to the people who develop or use computer systems. 


Per-Pocket Fees


In single-copy sales, an extra fee paid to retailers on a per-pocket basis, for checkout display.


Performance Pricing Model


An advertising model in which advertisers pay based on a set of agreed upon performance criteria, such as a percentage of online revenues or delivery of new sales leads. See CPA, CPC, CPL, CPO, CPS, CPT.


Periodicals Class


One of the U.S. Postal Service's classes of mail, consisting of magazines, newspapers or other publications formed of printed sheets that are issued at least four times a year at regular, specified intervals from a known office of publications. Traditionally, magazines and newspapers have been afforded lower rates than promotional mail, on the grounds that periodicals advance the dissemination of information necessary in a democracy. Periodicals must demonstrate that their subscriber lists are at least 50 percent paid and/or request to qualify for the Periodicals rate.




"Permanent link." A permalink is a URL that links to a specific news story or Web posting. Permalinks are most commonly used for blogs, which are frequently changed and updated. They give a specific Web address to each posting, allowing blog entries to be bookmarked by visitors or linked to from other websites.


Permission Marketing


When an individual has given a company permission to market its
products and services to the individual. See opt-in.


Persistent Cookie


A cookie which remains on the user’s hard drive until the user erases it.


Personal Hotspot


A screen hotspot, in computing, provides a special area on the display screen of a computer for hyperlinking or for other GUI-based activity (such as re-direction, pop-up display, macro execution, etc). 


Personal Identifier


In controlled circulation, when marketing by telephone or electronically, readers are asked to answer a question about themselves that can later be used to confirm that a specific individual made the request to receive a subscription to a publication. (For instance, the telemarketer might ask for color of eyes.)


Personal URL


Many websites that host online communities allow you to create you own personal URL within the website. This custom URL typically serves as the Web address of your profile page and can be shared and bookmarked by other users.




Pharming redirects users to false websites without them even knowing it and hacks them.




The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information, such as passwords and credit card, social security, and bank account numbers, that the
legitimate organization already has. The Web site, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the user’s information.


Photo Sharing


The publishing or transfer of a user’s digital photos online, thus enabling the user to share them with others (whether in public or private). This function is provided through websites and applications that facilitate the upload and display of images.


PII (Personally Indentifiable Information)


(Personally Identifiable Information): refers to information such as an individual’s name, mailing address, phone number or e-mail address.


Pin Turn (Rotate)


Pin the object in place with one finger while the other finger drags the object around the pinned point. This rotates the object.




With two fingers pinch in to zoom in or separate the fingers to pinch out and zoom out.


Pink Sheet


Slang for the ABC paid consumer publisher's statement.




Pinterest is an online pinboard. Pinterest lets you organize and share your favorite images that you find surfing the web. Pinterest allows users to create virtual pinboards that users "pin" visuals from the web or self-uploaded content onto their unique boards and organize their findings online.


PIT (Page Information Transfer)


The successful transfer of the text of a Web page to a browser.




Picture element (single illuminated dot) on a computer monitor. The metric used to indicate the size of Internet ads.


Plain Text


Supports standard ASCII characters, including numbers, symbols, and spaces, but does not support any type of text formatting. Therefore you cannot apply bold, italic, or underlined styles, and you cannot use different fonts or font sizes in a plain text document.


PLI (Privacy Leadership Initiative)


A partnership of CEOs from 15 corporations and 9 business
associations using research to create a climate of trust that will accelerate acceptance of the Internet and the emerging Information Economy, both online and offline, as a safe and secure marketplace. See




Add-on software that adds additional functionality to a web browser. Plug-ins are typically used to display specialized multimedia content such as video and 3d models. The most well known plug-in is the Macromedia Flash player.




Portable Network Graphic format. PNG was developed as a replacement for GIF as the standard World Wide Web graphics format.


Pocket Text/Dial


Accidently texting or calling someone from sitting on your phone while it is in your pocket. 




An audio broadcast that has been converted to an MP3 file or other audio file format for playback on a digital music player or on a computer. Just like news feeds, podcasts have evolved to include any kind of audio as well as images and video (photofeed and vidcast). The name "podcast" combines the terms iPod and broadcast into a single catchy word. 


Point Roll


An advertising banner format that expands as you roll over or click on the banner with your mouse.




Publisher and wholesaler in-store marketing activity.




A plastic wrap around a maga-zine that allows enclosure of promotion materials and protects the magazine in the mail.


POP (Point-of-Purchase)


Refers to promotional and/or display materials used to encourage single-copy sales.




Alternate term for pop-up user interface element. 


Pop-under Ad


Ad that appears in a separate window beneath an open window. Pop-under ads are concealed until the top window is closed, moved, resized or minimized.


Pop-up Ad


Ad that appears in a separate window on top of content already on-screen. Similar to a daughter window, but without an associated banner.


Pop-up Transitional


Initiates play in a separate ad window during the transition between content pages. Continues while content is simultaneously being rendered. Depending primarily on linespeed, play of a transitional ad may finish before or after content rendering is completed.
POP3 (post office protocol)


(Post Office Protocol) An Internet protocol used to download messages from an email server to an email client (usually email software running on a PC or mobile device). 




A Web site that offers services to entice Internet surfers to use the site as their main "point of entry" to the Web. Typically, a portal will provide a directory of links to sites, a search engine, and other services such as free e-mail, or filtering and blocking options for parents.


Portrait View


Vertical display of content on your device, if available and triggered by turning your device into the vertical position. 




A linear video that appears after the video content completes.


Postal Rate Commission (PRC)


An independent federal agency, created by the Postal Reorganization Act, that makes recommendations concerning USPS re-quests for changes in postal rates and mail classifications. The five commissioners are nominated by the President and approved by the Senate.




Storing advertising or content in a computer's RAM or hard disk memory before it is displayed on the user's screen, rather than at the time that it plays, to reduce delays in rendering. See cache, caching.




A linear video that appears before the video content plays.


Precise Tilt (roll)


Gives you the ability to "precisely" (in small increments) tilt an object up or down - to do this, place two fingers from your left hand on the screen while placing one finger from your right hand on the object and move up or down to desired position.


Precise Tilt (yaw)


Gives you the ability to "precisely" (in small increments) tilt an object left or right - to do this, place two fingers from your left hand on the screen while placing one finger from your right hand on the object and move left or right to desired position. 




Copies returned by the retailer to the wholesaler before the off-sale date (see definition).




Anything offered to the sub-scriber as an added incentive contingent upon ordering a magazine subscription (or renewing it) or buying a newsstand copy. Printed or online-delivered premiums that tie in closely to a magazine's editorial mission are called editorial premiums; all others are called product premiums (or, flippantly, greed premiums). Premiums are usually withheld until a subscription is paid. BPA now refers to premiums as free promotional incentives. One or more free copies of the magazine are considered premiums, as opposed to samples (see definition), if they are offered as an extension of or part of a subscription. Presort: The process by which a mailer prepares mail so that it is sorted to at least the finest extent required by the standards for the rate claimed. In order to qualify for various postal discounts, mailers or their suppliers presort mail to various levels, from the lowest (finest) level to the highest level, according to three- and five-digit zip codes, carrier route, walk sequences, entry points and other specified standards as defined by the U.S. Postal Service.


Primary Audience


Defined as the subscriber/newsstand buyer of a magazine or someone else in the household of these primary purchasers who has read or looking into a magazine.



Privacy Policy


Set of standards employed by a company regarding the use of their consumer’s information, the methods by which they determine what usage is permissible, and the means by which the consumer can relay their preferences.


Privacy Seal Program


A program that certifies the Web site owner complies with the site’s
proposed policy. Examples include TRUSTe and BBBOnline.


Private API

An API that may or may not be used by Apple but isn’t finished, polished or otherwise approved for developers to use in App Store apps. Apple will reject any app that uses a Private API. 

Process Audit


Third party validation of internal control processes associated with measurement. See audit.




This little chip is the heart of a computer. Also referred to as the "microprocessor," the processor does all the computations such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. In PCs, the most popular microprocessor used is the Intel Pentium chip, whereas Macintosh computers use the PowerPC chip (developed by Motorola, IBM, and Apple).


Professional Discount Package


See Voucher Package.




A profile is not a page. It may look like one, but it’s not. The features and capabilities are different. It is a Facebook site intended for and created by people who want to share information about themselves and socialize with others. A profile displays a user’s personal information and their interactions with friends. Each registered user may have only one profile.




The practice of tracking information about consumers' interests by monitoring their movements online. This can be done without using any personal information, but simply by analyzing the content, URL’s, and other information about a user’s browsing path/click-stream.


Progress Bar


User interface element displaying time remaining for an interaction, such as loading a function of downloading content. 




A uniform set of rules that enable two devices to connect and transmit data to one another. Protocols determine how data are transmitted between computing devices and over networks. They define issues such as error control and data compression methods. The protocol determines the following: type of error checking to be used, data compression method (if any), how the sending device will indicate that it has finished a message and how the receiving device will indicate that it has received the message. Internet protocols include TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), and SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).




An estimated audience developed for an unmeasured magazine which is created by using existing date from measured a magazine that may be similar in a variety of ways (e.g editorially, demographic compostion, circulation). This "calibrated" mix of data (prototype) is then used in syndicated research for media planning purposes.


Proximity Sensor


A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. 


Proxy Server


Most large businesses, organizations, and universities these days use a proxy server. This is a server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access. 


Psychographic Data


Data that describes consumer lifestyles, attitudes, values and beliefs. For example, overlays (see definition) are available for analyzing and targeting markets based on psychographics correlated with specific zip code areas. Demographics are now used for targeting single-copy sales distribution, as well as subscription promotions.


Public API


An API approved by Apple and made available in the iOS SDK. Public API’s are a guarantee by Apple that developers can use them and not worry apple will make changes, which could result in apps crashing or other bugs.


Public Domain


The jurisdiction of the general public. It refers to intellectual property that has either been voluntarily placed in the public domain by its author or that has passed its copyright, trademark or patent expiration date. However, rights in one country do not necessarily apply to another. International property rights is a complicated subject, as each country has its own statutes.


Public Place/Sponsored Subscriptions


ABC's current term for multiple subscriptions sold to one customer, usually at a discount. Previously called bulk subscriptions.


Publisher's Statement


The circulation statistics filed by a publisher twice per year with an audit bureau. These statements are audited annually.


Push Advertising


Pro-active, partial screen, dynamic advertisement which comes in various formats.


Go to top




"Random Access Memory," RAM is made up of small memory chips that form a memory module. These modules are installed in the RAM slots on the motherboard of your computer.


Rate Base


Many publishers guarantee advertisers that they will maintain a certain average circulation level, or rate base, over a given six-month audit period (a few publishers guarantee rate base on each issue published). Advertisers use the rate base to determine their cost per thousand of circulation, or CPM (see definition), and will generally demand a makegood (see definition) if average rate base is missed over a six-month period, or sometimes even on one issue. RDA (Retail Display Allow-ance): In single-copy sales, it is more or less standard for the retailer to be offered a percent discount or set dollar amount off the cover price of a magazine, in theory for guaranteeing adequate display of the magazine on the mainline or at the checkout (see definitions). The RDA is paid to retailers on top of the traditional national retail discount off the cover price.


Rate Card


The list of prices and products and packages offered by a media company.




The percent of different people/homes reached by a single issue of a magazine. Synonomous with reach.


Rating Point


The reach of 1% of a target audience. Gross Rating Points (grps) is the sum of reach of a media schedule. Essentially synonomous with TRP's (target rating points).


Raw Data


Raw data is unprocessed computer data. This information may be stored in a file, or may just be a collection of numbers and characters stored on somewhere in the computer's hard disk. 


Raw File


A raw file is a collection of unprocessed data. This means the file has not been altered, compressed, or manipulated in any way by the computer. 




When used in reference to online advertising, one server assigning an ad serving or adtargeting function to another server, often operated by a third company. For instance, a Web publisher's ad management server might re-direct to a third-party hired by an advertiser to distribute its ads to target customers; and then another re-direct to a "rich media" provider might
also occur if streaming video were involved before the ad is finally delivered to the consumer. In some cases, the process of re-directs can produce latency. See ad serving, latency.




Unique users that visited the site over the course of the reporting period, expressed as a percent of the universe for the demographic category; also called unduplicated audience; The total number of unique users who will be served a given ad.


Readers-Per-Copy (RPC)


The average number of readers who read/look into an average issue of a magazine. Formula: RPC X circulation= average issue audience.


Real Time


Events that happen in real time are happening virtually at that particular moment. When one chats in a chat room, or sends an instant message, one is interacting in real time since it is immediate.




A software program that downloads and plays streaming audio files.




The person who receives a gift subscription (also called a donee or giftee). Also, readers of controlled publications are sometimes still referred to as recipients, although subscribers is now the preferred term.




A reciprocal link is a mutual link between two websites. The result of a reciprocal link is two websites that link to each other. 


Recovery Mode


This is the mode that you use when your phone is in desperate need of a restore. This is what you use in an emergency or when your phone doesn’t want to start normally. To do, hold the power and home buttons for 20-30 seconds.


Referral Fees


Fees paid by advertisers for delivering a qualified sales lead or purchase inquiry.


Referral Link


The referring page, or referral link is a place from which the user clicked to get to the current page. In other words, since a hyperlink connects one URL to another, in clicking on a link the browser moves from the referring URL to the destination URL. Also known as source of a visit.




Refresh is a command that reloads the contents of a window or Web page with the most current data. 




The advertising tactic of providing reach, without regard to frequency, for as many weeks as possible in order to deliver ad messages immediately prior to purchase decisions.


Regional Edition


Editions of a national magazine that contain advertising and/or editorial targeted to readers within a limited geographic area.


Registration Page


Web page on an internet site that is used to collect data for an entry or sign up,such as for sweepstakes, newsletters, etc.


Regression Analysis/Modeling


A statistical technique wherein two or more customer files are matched and/or mailed against each other to produce look-alikes. The objective can be either to weed out poor prospects or to identify good ones for promotion purposes. Many list owners now offer regression to make renting segments of large lists economically feasible for more mailers.


Remail Point (Hub/City)


The city where mail is taken to be remailedusually because a more favorable rate can be ob-tained, but sometimes for other reasons, such as faster delivery to nearby destinations.




Depositing mail in the postal system of one country for delivery to its final destination. Remailing is generally done in order to obtain a more favorable rate and/or faster delivery to the final destination. There are three general types of remail: ABA, ABC, ABB. ABA Remail: A mailer in Country A ships mail to Country B for mailing back to addresses in Country A. ABC Remail: A mailer in Country A ships mail to Country B for mailing to addresses in Country C. ABB Remail: A mailer in Country A ships mail to Country B for mailing to addresses in Country B. (Also called Direct Entry.)




The portion of a sale remitted to a publisher after a subscription agent's commission is deducted.


Remote Access


Remote access is just what it sounds like -- the ability to access your computer from a remote location. 


Remote Desktop


Remote desktop technology makes it possible to view another computer's desktop on your computer. This means you can open folders, move files, and even run programs on the remote computer, right from your own desktop.


Removable Battery


Useful if you want to bring a secondary charged battery with you when out and about to swap in when your tablet PC battery runs out of charge. Not all tablets have removable battery but you can usually get external power packs that can be hooked up to your tablet to achieve the same result. 


Renewal at Birth


Also called a collection extension or step-up. An upsell offer, often on the bill for a credit subscription, and usually at a lower price per copy than the original offer. For auditing purposes, not to be counted as separate subscriptions if the transaction takes place within 60 days of the date of original order.


Renewal Incentive


A premium that is offered in a billing effort as an extra incentive to pay for the renewal.


Renewal Rate


Number of renewals sold to a block of expires, divided by the number of expires available for renewal in that block. Expressed as a percentage.


Renewal Series


A scheduled series of marketing efforts (such as direct mail, telemarketing, email) made to a renew a group of subscribers. Usually starts well before expiration date and generally continues a few months past expiration date.


Repeat Visitor


Refers to a person who visits a given Web site multiple times. Generally accepted practice is to count visitors within a calendar month and identify them as new or having visited before. When a new month begins, the count begins anew. See also "Unique visitor."


Requalification (Requal)


Refers to the renewal of controlled-publication subscribers.


Request Circulation


See Direct Request.


Rescue Pop Up


A pop up that appears when a transaction is interrupted prior to completion, and which attempts to "rescue" the transaction with an offer for a product. See also "Abandonment Pop up" or "Exit Pop up."


Resistive Screen


A screen that often requires a stylus to use one of these because they're less responsive than their counterpart capacitive screens.




The total number of pixels on a screen. Higher resolution means more pixels, which provides the ability to capture or display more visual information (more detail and clarity.)




It’s a verb, referring to an action taken usually used when rebooting a "jailbroken" Apple device.




When you restore a computer or other electronic device, you return it to a previous state. This may be a previous system backup or the original factory settings.




The circulation function of acquiring and keeping paid subscriptions through renewal marketing promotions and billing efforts.


Retina Display


Name for the newest iPhone 4 display. 


Return Affidavit


A document issued by the wholesaler and accepted by the publisher and national distributor in lieu of actual covers of unsold magazines. The affidavit certifies the number of returns and their destruction by the wholesaler.


Return on Investment (ROI)


The sales return on the advertising expenditures invested in media.


Return or Response


See Gross Response and Net Response.


Return Visits


Average number of times a user returns to a site over a specific time period.




In single-copy sales, magazines that are distributed but not sold. In many cases, unsold copies are returned to the wholesaler, who processes and records them, issues credit records, shreds the copies, and verifies, by affidavit, that the returns have been destroyed.




To repost a message from another Twitter user, and share it with one's own followers, the retweet function is symbolized by ""RT"" in the message.


Rich Media


A method of communication that incorporates animation, sound, video, and/or interactivity. It can be used either singularly or in combination with the following technologies: streaming media, sound, Flash, and with programming languages such as Java, Javascript, and DHTML. It is deployed via standard Web and wireless applications including e-mail, Web design, banners, buttons, and interstitials.


Rich Media Ads


Advertisements with which users can interact (as opposed to solely animation) in a web page format. They may appear in ad formats such as banners and buttons, as well as transitional (interstitials) and various over-the-page units such as floating ads, page take-overs, and tear backs.


Rich Text


It supports text formatting, such as bold, italics, and underlining, as well as different fonts, font sizes, and colored text. Rich text documents can also include page formatting options, such as custom page margins, line spacing, and tab widths.


Right Click


The right side of the mouse is often used to open contextual menus, which are pop-up menus that change depending where you click. 




The ability to use a communications device such as a cellphone or PDA and be able to move from one cell or access point to another without losing the connection.  




Any browser program which follows hypertext links and accesses web pages but is not directly under human control. Examples are the search engine spiders, the "harvesting" programs which extract e-mail addresses and other data from web pages and various intelligent web searching programs. A database of web robots is maintained by Webcrawler.


ROI (return on investment)


Net profit divided by investment.


RON (run-of-network)


The scheduling of Internet advertising whereby an ad network positions ads across the sites it represents at its own discretion, according to available inventor. The advertiser usually forgoes premium positioning in exchange for more advertising weight at a lower CPM.


Root Access


The term for a very highly privileged administrative user in unix environments. When an ISP grants you root access, it means you will have full control of the server. With full control, you will be able to install any software and access any file on that server.




Acronym for "run of site" in reference to advertising banners displayed on a Web site on all of its pages; i.e., advertising that is not targeted to a specific topic on a site. Run of site advertising is usually cheaper than targeted advertising because it can be used to fill unsold inventory. Run of site advertising is best used for products and services that appeal to the vast majority of users.




To rotate your content, place two fingers on the screen and "rotate" (pivot) your wrist. 




Entire collection of ads that are displayed in a specific location on a specific web page. Sophisticated ad management software can dynamically define ad rotation based on user profiles, time of day and many other factors.


RSS (Really Simple Syndication)


Stands for "RDF Site Summary," but is commonly referred to as "Really Simple Syndication." RSS is method of providing website content such as news stories or software updates in a standard XML format. Websites such as The Wall Street Journal and CNET's provide news stories to various RSS directories that distribute them over the Internet. RSS content can be accessed with an RSS-enabled Web browser or other programs designed for retrieving RSS feeds. 




When a program is running, or executing, it is said to be in runtime. The term is mostly used by software developers to specify when errors in a program occur.


Go to top




The Web browser that comes with the Max OS X operating system and iPhone. Safari is noted for its fast download speed and many built-in features including the Google search bar and popup blocker. In 2007, Safari was introduced to Windows users. See Mac OS X.


Safe Harbor


There are 2 definitions:
Safe Harbor (European): Europe and the U.S. take very different approaches to privacy. In October 1998, Europe enacted the Directive on Data Protection. To bridge the different privacy approaches and provide a means for U.S. organizations to comply with the Directive, the U.S. Department of Commerce in consultation with the European Commission developed a "safe harbor" framework, which was approved by the EU.

Safe Harbor (COPPA): The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) includes a provision enabling industry groups or others to submit for FTC approval self-regulatory guidelines that implement the protections set by COPPA. The COPPA requires the FTC to act on a request for "safe harbor" treatment within 180 days of the filing of the request, following the criteria for approval of guidelines and the materials that must be submitted as part of a safe harbor application.


Safe Mode


Safe Mode is a way for the Windows operating system to run with the minimum system files necessary. 




A subset of a universe whose properties are studied to gain information about that universe.




Paid magazines sometimes attempt to recruit new subscribers by offering them one or more free trial issues. Samples differ from a forced free trial (see definition) in that they are requested by the prospect and usually involve only one or a few free issues. Free copies added to or included in a subscription term are premiums (see definition), not samples.


Sampling Error


The possible deviation in the reported finding of media audience research based on a sample from what might be the actual finding had a complete census been done. Usually reported as "+/-" the reported number.


Sampling Frame


The source from which the sample is drawn.




Examination of an email by a software application, used to find references.


Scan-Based Trading


Refers to the practice of basing retail sales figures for magazines solely on the number of sales recorded through checkout scanning, as opposed to the traditional system of returning unsold magazine covers. Also known as Pay-on-Scan or Pay-on-Sale (POS). (Also see Returns.)




Scraping, or "web scraping," is the process of extracting large amounts of information for a website. This may involve downloading several web pages or the entire site. The downloaded content may include just the text from the pages, the full HTML, or both the HTML and images from each page. 


Screen Density


 The quality of pixels within a screen, usually measured in dots per inch (DPI). Android generalized densities for tablets are; ldpi (low), mdpi (medium), hdpi (high), and xhdpi (extra high).


Screen Resolution


This term describes how many pixels a monitor can display. A small monitor may have a resolution or 640 x 480, which means there are 640 pixels horizontally across the screen and 480 pixels vertically. Some other common monitor resolutions are 800 x 600, 1,024 x 768, and 1,280 x 1,024. The higher the resolution, the more that can be displayed on the screen.




Screen recording software that turns screen output into a video to teach an application or to promote a product by demonstrating features. Users can also make videos of screen sequences to log results for troubleshooting. Screencast programs may allow narration during capture, and advanced versions allow editing and annotation after the capture.




A screenshot, or screen capture, is a picture taken of your computer's desktop. This may include the desktop background, icons of files and folders, and open windows.




Files that initiate routines like generating Web pages dynamically in response to user input.




Most computer programs display their content within a window. However, windows are often not large enough to display their entire content at once. Therefore, you may have to scroll through the window to view the rest of the contents. For example, on some monitors, a page from a word processing document may not fit within the main window when viewed at 100%. Therefore, you may have to scroll down the window to view the rest of the page. Similarly, many Web pages do not fit completely within a window and may require you to scroll both vertically and horizontally to see all the content.


SD Card Reader


Same as SD Card Slot – for quickly getting your pictures off your camera and onto the tablet PC or for reading SD cards with video, music or other documents. 


SD Card Slot


Means you can add an SD card (SD = Secure Digital) with additional memory to store files such as music and video. Digital cameras typically use an SD card so if you have the SD card slot then you can take the SD card directly from your camera, slot it in to the tablet PC and directly upload your photos for viewing. 


SDK (Software Developers Kit)


A set of tools, API, frameworks, interfaces elements... etc used to create software like apps. 


Search Engine


Google, Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, Bing and Yahoo are all search engines. They index millions of sites on the Web, so that Web surfers like you and me can easily find Web sites with the information we want. By creating indexes, or large databases of Web sites (based on titles, keywords, and the text in the pages), search engines can locate relevant Web sites when users enter search terms or phrases. 


Search Engine Marketing (SEM)


Search engine marketing, (SEM), is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility in search engine result pages (SERPs) through the use of paid placement, contextual advertising, and paid inclusion. Search engine optimization"optimizes" website content to achieve a higher ranking in search results, for example, by incorporating specific keywords or links associated with the website. Depending on the context, SEM can be an umbrella term for various means of marketing a website including SEO, or it may contrast with SEO, focusing on just paid components.


Secondary Storage


Secondary storage technology refers to storage devices and storage media that are not always directly accessible by a computer. This differs from primary storage technology, such as an internal hard drive, which is constantly available. 


Secondary Wholesaler


Traditionally, a wholesaler that services retail accounts outside of supermarkets, convenience stores, drug stores and other major, mass-market outlets for magazines. Due to industry consolidation, these wholesalers now service all markets. Selective Binding: The computerized, database-driven binding process that has expanded the economic feas- ibility of breaking out regional or interest-specific advertising and/or editorial editions of a given issue. Selectively bound, ink-jetted messages are some- times used for subscription promotion and for editorial customization that serves circulation goals, as well as for advertising messages.


Secure Page


If transfer of information over the Internet is secure, it means that encryption software is used to protect the information and prevent it being read or tampered with. Order pages in which a customer inserts credit card information are an example of a page that a vendor would keep secure.


Secure WiFi


Wi-Fi protected by a password.


Select & Drag


Act of highlighting whatever you want and moving to desired location.




A piece of promotion mail that is not enclosed in an envelope and is designed so that a portion of it can be used for a reply. A double postcard is one type of self-mailer. (See the Domestic Mail Manual, Reusable Mail Pieces.)




Also called efficiency or efficiency level. The percentage of distributed newsstand copies that were actually sold. Average sell-through for the industry has fallen to about 36 percent, compared to 55 percent in the mid-'80s and nearly 49 percent in 1989.


Sell-Through Rate


The percentage of ad inventory sold as opposed to traded or bartered.




Acronym for search engine marketing, by which a marketer can invest in key words and phrases in order for their products and services to be displayed in response to prospective customers who search the Web using those same key words or phrases. See also "Search engine."




Acronym for search engine optimization, the methodologies employed to maximize the effectiveness of search engine marketing. See also "Search engine."




A server serves information to computers that connect to it. When users connect to a server, they can access programs, files, and other information from the server. 


Server Log


Computer file that records every action taken by every visitor to a Web site; analysis of the file can tell a marketer what parts of the site get the most traffic, how long visitors stay on a page, and what patterns are evident in visitors' interaction with the site.


Server Pull


A process whereby a user's browser maintains an automated or customized connection or profile with a Web server. The browser usually sets up a unique request that is recorded and stored electronically for future reference.Examples are: requests for the automated delivery of e-mail newsletters, the request for Web content based on a specific search criteria determined by the user, or setting up a personalized Web page that customizes the information delivered to the user based on pre-determined self selections.


Server Push


A process whereby a server maintains an open connection with a browser after the initial request for a page. Through this open connection the server continues to provide updated pages and content even though the visitor has made no further direct requests for such information.


Server-initiated Ad Impression


One of the two methods used for ad counting. Ad content is delivered to the user via two methods:server-initiated and client-initiated. Server-initiated ad counting uses the publisher’s Web content server for making requests, formatting and re-directing content. For organizations using a server-initiated ad counting method, counting should occur subsequent to the ad response at either the publisher's ad server or the Web content server, or later in the process. See client-initiated ad impression.




A sequence of Internet activity made by one user at one site. If a user makes no request from a site during a 30 minute period of time, the next content or ad request would then constitute the beginning of a new visit; A series of transactions performed by a user that can be tracked across successive Web sites. For example, in a single session, a user may start on a publisher's Web site, click on an advertisement and then go to an advertiser's Web site and make a purchase. See visit.


Session Cookies


Cookies that are loaded into a computer’s RAM, and only work during that browser session. When the browser exits, these cookies are erased. They are "temporary cookies", and no cookie is written to a user’s hard drive. See cookie.


Set-top Box


An electronic device that sits on top of one’s TV set and allows it to connect to the Internet, game systems, or cable systems.




(Straight from Print) Editorial or advertising content where the page on the screen looks exactly like the print page - with no interactive enhancement except for the activation of links.




Editorial or advertising content where the page on the screen looks exactly like the print page - with some interactive enhancements (beyond activation of links).




The act of moving your device back and forth. A neat feature that takes advantage of the accelerometer, a sensor that allows the phone to know when and how it is being moved by the user, built into the iPhone and some iPod nanos.


Shared Hosting


Shared hosting is when an ISP places multiple websites, belonging to multiple customers on the same physical server hardware. In many cases, there may be hundreds of sites hosted on the same server. The number of sites hosted, and the amount of traffic those sites receive could dramatically impact the performance of your site.




With shareware, you can use the product for a trial period and then decide if you want to keep it. If you want to keep the software after the trial period is up, you're supposed to (and should) register the product and pay the shareware fee. 




A browser plug-in developed by Macromedia which allows multimedia objects to appear on the Web (animation, audio and video).


Shop Bot


Intelligent agent which searches for the best price.


Shopping Cart


Allows you to create and implement an online storefront. The cart keeps track of what visitors have ordered and allows them to add or remove items from a 'virtual shopping cart'. When a visitor checks out, the order information is transmitted and a receipt is sent to the shopper.




The difference between beginning and ending inventory that can't be accounted for through sales and delivery records. Magazine issues that cannot be accounted for as sold or returned and destroyed are labeled shrink. The issue of how much if any of the costs associated with shrink should be absorbed by the publisher versus the retailer (who currently absorbs these costs) is a source of contention between the two parties. (See Scan-Based Trading.)




In computing, a sidebar is a user interface element that displays a list of choices. It typically appears as a column to the left of the main content, though it can appear on the right side as well. 


Single Source Date


The reporting of date based on the product/service purchase patterns and media consumption habits from a single source.


Single-Copy Sales
Also called newsstand sales. Single copies of magazines sold at retail. Most single-copy sales are made in supermarkets and other mass retail outlets. Many publishers also distribute through specialty stores.


Refers to a group of pages which reside under a single domain name. For example,


Site Launch


An event when a new or redesigned Web site is made live.


Site Map


Hierarchical diagram, or outline, of all the pages on a Web site. An overview of a web site that lists the pages in a web site providing text links to all of the pages. Usually, each listing is an active link, enabling a visitor to click on the link and move directly to a section from the site map.


Site Statistics


Aggregate statistics of your site's traffic which is created by analyzing log files. Site statistics are usually generated by log analysis software such as WebTrends or Webalizer.


Site-Centric Measurement


Audience measurement derived from a Web site's own server logs.




Special Interest Tablet Issues are special editions of magazines that are on sale for long periods of time or not part of the regular frequency.




Refers to the appearance of a program's interface. By changing the skin of a program, you can make the interface look completely different, but usually still have all the same functions. It is similar to a "Theme" you may use to customize the appearance of your computer's desktop.




Skyscraper ads, which are tall and narrow. They are typically placed to the left or right of the main content on the page, which allows all or part of the ad to be visible even as the user scrolls down the window. The IAB guidelines recommend two sizes of skyscrapers: 120 X 600 and 160 x 600.




If the increase in traffic is so dramatic that it causes the server to be completely unreachable, the server is said to have been "slashdotted."


Slotting Fee


A fee charged to advertisers by media companies to get premium positioning on their site, category exclusivity or some other special treatment. It is similar to slotting allowances charged by retailers.


Smart Card


Identical in size and feel to credit cards, smart cards store information on an integrated microprocessor chip located within the body of the card. These chips hold a variety of information, from stored (monetary)-value used for retail and vending machines, to secure information and applications for higher-end operations such as medical/healthcare records. The different types of cards being used today are contact, contactless and combination cards. Contact smart cards must be inserted into a smart card reader. These cards have a contact plate on the face which makes an electrical connector for reads and writes to and from the chip when inserted into the reader. Contactless smart cards have an antenna coil, as well as a chip embedded within the card. The
internal antenna allows for communication and power with a receiving antenna at the transaction point to transfer information. Close proximity is required for such transactions, which can decrease transaction time while increasing convenience. A combination card functions as both a contact and contactless smart card. Specific to interactive television, the viewer can insert smart cards into the set-top box to trigger the box to decrypt contact programming.




A smartphone is a mobile phone that includes advanced functionality beyond making phone calls and sending text messages. Most smartphones have the capability to display photos, play videos, check and send e-mail, and surf the Web. Modern smartphones, such as the iPhone and Android based phones can run third-party applications, which provides limitless functionality.




1. Sniffer software can detect a user's browser capabilities, such as bandwidth, JavaScript, plugins and screen resolution. A sniffer program can be used capture data across a computer network. 2. Sniffer programs are used by hackers to capture user id names and passwords. A sniffer software tool can audit and identify network traffic packets. Is also used legitimately by network operations and maintenance personnel to troubleshoot network problems.


Social Graph


The Social Graph is the representation of our relationships. These graphs define our personal, family, or business communities on social websites.


Social Network


An online destination that gives users the ability to connect with one or more groups of friends, share interests and/or activities. It facilitates the sharing of content, news and information about each users. A social network consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, activities, events, and interests within their individual profile/updates.


Soft Offer


A subscription offer that states or implies that you may receive the first issue without obligation and may discontinue the subscription without payment by writing cancel on the first invoice and returning it.




The channel of sale that produced a subscription, or the single-copy sales channel. On circulation reports, the source is shown either by key (see definition) or agency designation. Source includes both mini-source (individual keys) and maxi-source (keys grouped together in a planned way).


Source Evaluation


A mathematical study of new subscriptions sold through a given source, and their conversion and renewals over the years, to determine the true profit per net paid unit of circulation. This allows for comparing and assessing the relative volume and profitability of various sources. It is one of the main uses for models. Sponsor Sales: Sales by agents, often by telephone, in which a charity or civic association gets a portion of the commission in return for use of its name. On the business side, a company may purchase bulk subs to give to clients.




Location on a page of a site in which an ad can be placed. Each space on a site is uniquely identified. There can be multiple spaces on a single page.




 Refers to unsolicited "junk" e-mail sent to large numbers of people to promote products or services.


SPAM Filter


Spam Filters are programs that scan data for patterns -- like certain unacceptable words and phrases - and blocks them from the intended recpient.


SPAM Scores


SPAM software scans emails and provides a score based on the words and
phrases contained in that email. Certain words and phrases -- like "click here" B938may be weighted as indicative of SPAM. This type of software also analyzes the ratio of text to image. Marketers may wish to change their message based on a high SPAM score in order to make the message more palatable to SPAM filters.


SPAM Settings


Using special software, consumers can set parameters in their own email boxes to attempt to avoid receiving SPAM. For instance, weight certain words as unacceptable to a greater or lesser degree, insert certain "From" email addresses as being acceptable or unacceptable to receive, etc.


SPAM Software


See Spam Filter




A computer program that is used by a search engine to discover, download, and index mobile web content. If not removed from your analytics, they can grossly inflate your numbers.




Touch screen with two fingers and twist quickly to rotate image.


Splash Page


A preliminary page that precedes the user-requested page of a Web site that usually promotes a particular site feature or provides advertising. A splash page is timed to move on to the requested page after a short period of time or a click. Also known as an interstitial. Splash pages are not considered qualified page impressions under current industry guidelines, but they are considered qualified ad impressions.


Split Run


A scheduling technique whereby two different pieces of copy are run in the circulation of a magazine with no one reader receiving both advertisments.




1) A sponsor is an advertiser who has sponsored an ad and, by doing so, has also helped sponsor or sustain the Web site itself; 2) An advertiser that has a special relationship with the Web site and supports a specific feature of a Web site, such as a writer's column or a collection of articles on a particular subject.




An association with a Web site in some way that gives an advertiser some
particular visibility and advantage above that of run-of-site advertising. When associated with specific content, sponsorship can provide a more targeted audience than run-of-site ad buys.




Sending email that appears to be"From" a legitimate sender. Spammers employ this inan attempt to get their messages received and opened.


Spotlight Search


Spotlight is a system-wide desktop search feature of Apple's Mac OS X operating system. Spotlight is a selection-based search system, which creates a virtual index of all items and files on the system. It is designed to allow the user to quickly locate a wide variety of items on the computer, including documents, pictures, music, applications, and System Preferences. As well, specific words in documents and in web pages in a web browser's history or bookmarks can be searched. It also allows the user to narrow down searches with creation dates, modification dates, sizes, types and other attributes. Spotlight also offers quick access to definitions from built-in New Oxford American Dictionary and to calculator functionality. 


Spread/Pinch Open


Act of spreading your fingers on a touch screen to zoom in - speed and degree of zoom is determined by speed and degree of pinch/spread. 




It’s a noun, referring to an application that manages the iOS home screen.




Technology that assists in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge. On the Internet, "spyware is programming that is put in someone's computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties." As such, spyware is cause for public concern about privacy on the Internet.


SSH (Secure Shell)


Stands for "Secure Shell." SSH is a method of securely communicating with another computer. The "secure" part of the name means that all data sent via an SSH connection is encrypted. This means if a third party tries to intercept the information being transferred, it would appear scrambled and unreadable. The "shell" part of the name means SSH is based on a Unix shell, which is a program that interprets commands entered by a user.




The Secure Sockets Layer. A standard for securing data for transportation between two computers. On the World Wide Web, SSL is implemented over the https protocol.




A stack is a type of data structure -- a means of storing information in a computer. When a new object is entered in a stack, it is placed on top of all the previously entered objects.


Stampsheet Agencies


See Direct Mail Agency.


Stand Alone / Utility Apps


Free or paid apps that have no relationship to print products.


Standard Mail


The U.S. Postal Service's Standard Mail category includes Standard A and Standard B. Standard A is the subclass generally used by large-volume direct mailers, although some magazine circulation promotions are sent by First Class. Standard B is the rates and classifications subcategory used for books and parcels.




To commence service on a subscription, or a subscription that starts.


Static ad placement/Static rotation


1) Ads that remain on a Web page for a specified period of time; 2) embedded ads.


Static IP Address


A physical IP address that references your site. When your site is assigned a static IP address you will be able to access it using either the IP address or domain name. Many ISPs now create virtual address where many domain names are mapped to a single static IP addresses. Virtual domains are fine in most cases, but may not work properly in very old browsers.


Static Website


A static website contains Web pages with fixed content. Each page is coded in HTML and displays the same information to every visitor. Static sites are the most basic type of website and are the easiest to create.




A measure used to gauge the effectiveness of a site in retaining individual users. Stickiness is usually measured by the duration of the visit.




Data streaming, commonly seen in the forms of audio and video streaming, is when a multimedia file can be played back without being completely downloaded first. Most files, like shareware and software updates that you download off the Internet, are not streaming data. However, certain audio and video files like Real Audio and QuickTime documents can be streaming files, meaning you can watch a video or listen to a sound file while it's being downloaded to your computer. With a fast Internet connection, you can actually stream live audio or video to your computer.


Streaming Media Player


A software program which decompresses audio and/or video files so the
user can hear and/or see the video or audio file. Some examples are Real Player, Windows Media and Quick Time Player.


Subject Line


According to the CanSPAM act, the "Subject line" of an email must be relevant to the copy contained in an email missive.




A home/person that pays for receiving a magazine.


Subscription Count


Since a subscriber may have more than one subscription, a subscription (or label) count will usually be larger than a subscriber count.




SUPERSTITIAL(tm) format is a standard in online advertising created by Unicast: a nonbanner, interactive advertising solutions and services company for the Internet.


Suppresion File


File made up of names of people who have indicated that they do not want to receive direct marketing offers, or people whom a marketer has identified as undesirable prospects for a direct marketing effort. The Direct Marketing Association offers three suppression services for con-sumers: the Mail Preference Service, the Telephone Preference Service, and the Email Preference Service. Also, most individual marketers now offer customers the option of having their names excluded from list rentals and email promotions. (See Opt Out and Opt In.)


Surface Air Lift (SAL)


Mail transported by air to a distribution city, where it is deposited into the mail stream for final delivery via surface mail.




Exploring the World Wide Web.




Slide finger along screen up, down, left or right to initiate scrolling. Quickly sliding a finger up displays the next screen. Quickly sliding a finger down displays the previous screen. When the keyboard appears, quickly sliding a finger down hides the keyboard and displays the shortcut bar. By sliding a finger to the left or right quickly on the screen, this action displays the next or previous picture or message, or the next or previous day, week, or month in a calendar.




Swype is an input method for touchscreens developed by Swype Inc. Swype was first commercially available on the Samsung Omnia II running Windows Mobile. Swype allows users to enter words by sliding a finger or stylus from letter to letter, lifting only between words. It uses error-correcting algorithms and a language model to guess the intended word. It also includes a tapping predictive text system in the same interface. 




"Sync" is short for synchronize. When you sync a device, such as a cell phone, PDA, or iPod, you synchronize it with data on your computer. This is typically done by connecting the device to your computer via a USB or wireless Bluetooth connection. For example, you might sync the address book stored on your computer with your cell phone to update the contacts. If you have an iPod, you may connect it to your computer to sync songs, videos, and other data using Apple iTunes. 


Syndicated Video


Content sourced from a professional third party, examples may include syndication television shows, news footage, etc.


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Tablet Issue


The generic term for a tablet edition of a publication.


Tablet Issue Subscription


Paid subscription to the tablet issues of the publication.


Tablet Reader


An individual has opened a magazine issue on their tablet at least once- device level readership.




The range of tablet/wireless touchscreen devices including iPad, Kindle, and all larger than smartphone devices.




In online computer systems terminology, a tag is a non-hierarchical keyword or term assigned to a piece of information (such as an Internet bookmark, digital image, or computer file). This kind of metadata helps describe an item and allows it to be found again by browsing or searching. Tags are generally chosen informally and personally by the item's creator or by its viewer, depending on the system. 




To lightly touch a touch-sensitive screen. See click. 


Tap Screen Twice


On a web page, map, picture, or presentation attachment, this action zooms in to the web page, map, picture, or presentation attachment. 


Tape Backup


The server will be backed up to a tape drive. Tape drives provide large capacity and are often used for server backup.


Target Audience


The intended audience for an ad, usually defined in terms of specific
demographics (age, sex, income, etc.) product purchase behavior, product usage or media usage.


Task Bar


The task bar was introduced with Windows 95 and has been part of every version of Windows since then. It is the bar that spans the bottom of the screen and contains the Start button on the left side and the systray on the right. The task bar also includes the current time on the far right side and can hold shortcuts to programs directly to the right of the Start button.




Selling subscriptions by telephone solicitation, either in out-going (cold calling) or incoming calls. In some cases, prospects respond by phone to a DRTV (see definition) or other sub promotion, or are up-sold a magazine subscription when they call in for customer service or call a third party (such as a cataloger) to order merchandise.




With a telnet account, you will be able to log in and control the server with a command line interface. The command line interface will require you to type in textual commands like in MSDOS. This provides a powerful option for managing your servers, but can have a steep learning curve for users accustomed to a graphical environment such as Windows. Telnet has some security issues, primarily because the username and password, as well as all communication is sent in plain text over the internet.




A template is a file that serves as a starting point for a new document. When you open a template, it is pre-formatted in some way. 


Terminal Dues


The fees postal administrations of various countries pay one another for handling international mail.


Terms & Conditions


The details of the contract accompanying an insertion order. See for voluntary guidelines for standard terms & conditions for Internet advertising for media buys.




Sharing your iPhone’s cellular data connection with your laptop via USB (dock cable) or wirelessly via. 


Text Message


A non-html email message that consists only characters grouped into words; no images are contained in the message.


Texting Circle


Two or more people who stand or sit in a circle as if to talk, but instead all text on their phones people who are not in the circle. 


Textual Ad Impressions


The delivery of a text-based advertisement to a browser. To compensate
for slow Internet connections, visitors may disable "auto load images" in their graphical browser. When they reach a page that contains an advertisement, they see a marker and the advertiser's message in text format in place of the graphical ad. Additionally, if a user has a text-only browser, only textual ads are delivered and recorded as textual ad impressions.


Third-party Ad Server


Independent outsourced companies that specialize in managing,
maintaining, serving, tracking, and analyzing the results of online ad campaigns. They deliver targeted advertising that can be tailored to consumers' declared or predicted characteristics or preferences.




The threads of a computer program allow the program to execute sequential actions or many actions at once. Each thread in a program identifies a process that runs when the program asks it to.




Refers to how much data can be transferred from one location to another in a given amount of time. It is used to measure the performance of hard drives and RAM, as well as Internet and network connections.




Act of pushing content fast enough so it continues to remain in motion even after you finger is lifted. 




A thumbnail image is a small image that represents a larger one. Thumbnails are often used to provide snapshots of several images in a single space. They are commonly used by digital photo organization programs as well as visual search engines. 


Till Forbid


See Continuous Service.




A single-sheet subscription renewal or new-business promotion glued or affixed to the front of a subscriber or sample copy. Less costly than a wrap. Used most heavily by controlled titles, but also increasingly common among paid titles.




Going back and forth between key functions or content.




Tracer or tag which is attached by the receiving server to the address (URL) of a page requested by a user. A token lasts only through a continuous series of requests by a user, regardless of the length of the interval between requests. Tokens can be used to count unique users.


Top Level Domains


Last part of a fully qualified domain name. The traditional top level domains are: .com (Commercial bodies), .edu (Educational institutions), .gov (U.S. government), .mil (U.S. armed services), .net (Network operators) and .org (Other organizations). In 2001, seven new top level domains were added: .biz, .info, .name, .pro, .aero, .coop, and .museum. Additionally, over 240 countries have registered 2 letter top level domains such as .us, .uk and .jp.


Total Ad Impressions


The total of all graphical and textual ad impressions delivered, regardless of the source. See ad impression.


Total Unique Users


See unique user.


Total Visitors


Total number of browsers or individuals which have accessed a site within a specific time period.


Total Visits


Total number of browsers accessing a Web site within a specific time period. Total visits should filter robotic activity, but can include visits from repeat visitors.


Touch and Drag


This action moves the content on the screen in the corresponding direction. For example, when users touch and drag a menu item, the list of menu items moves in the same direction. In a text field, this action moves the outlined box and the cursor in the same direction. 


Touch The Screen Lightly (BB)


This action highlights an item. In a text field, if users touch the screen near the cursor, an outlined box displays around the cursor. This box helps users reposition the cursor more easily. 




Traceroute is a TCP/IP utility that allows a user to trace a network connection from one location to another, recording every hop along the way.




Trackback is a means of notifying a website that another website has linked to it. By linking to a trackback link, a webmaster can automatically inform the other website that he has added a link to one of site's pages.




The number of visits and/or visitors who come to a Web site.




The successful response to a page request; also when a browser receives a complete page of content from a Web server.


Transitional Ad


An ad that is displayed between Web pages. In other words, the user sees an advertisement as he/she navigates between page ‘a’ and page ‘b.’ Also known as an interstitial.


Transitional Pop Up


An ad that pops up in a separate ad window between content pages.




A command from the host server that notifies the viewer's set-top box that interactive content is available at this point. The viewer is notified about the available interactive content via an icon or clickable text. Once clicked by using the remote control, the trigger disappears and more content or a new interface appears on the TV screen.




A blogging website that features Tumblelogs, or individual blog sites, that can be reblogged or liked.




An online posting, or 'micro-blog' created by a Twitter user containing 140 characters or less.  tweets can contain any information you want to post, such as your plans for the weekend, your thoughts about a TV show, or even notes from a lecture. You can publish a tweet using a computer or a mobile phone. Once published, the tweet will appear on the Twitter home pages of all the users that are following you. Likewise, your Twitter home page will display the most recent tweets of the users that you are following. (verb) the act of posting a message (Tweeting, tweeted)




Twitter is an online service that allows you to share updates with other users by answering one simple question:""What are you doing?" Twitter limits each tweet to 140 characters, which means there is no room for rambling. Of course, in this era of limited attention spans, 140 characters may be as much as other users want to read anyway.


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(Unique Device ID) The identification number assigned to a disk drive, cellphone or other device. See iPhone UDID, UID and OID. 


UGC (User-Generated Content)


Also known as consumer-generated media (CGM), it refers to any material created and uploaded to the internet by non-media professionals, whether it’s a comment you left on, a professional-quality video uploaded to YouTube, or a student’s profile on Facebook.


Unaided Recall


The percentage or number of consumers surveyed who are able to cite a products/services name after being requested to cite any and all product names within an advertised category. As opposed to Aided Recall which prompts the respondent with the specific names.


Unduplicated audience


The number of unique individuals exposed to a specified domain, page or ad in a specified time period.


Unique Visitor


A unique user who accesses a website within a specific time period. Unique users can be identified by user registration or cookies. Reported unique users should filer out robots/spiders. Generally accepted practice is to count visitors within a calendar month and identify them as new or having visited before. When a new month begins, the count begins anew. 


Universal Postal Union (UPU)


An international congress that meets every five years to determine terminal dues (see definition) and other matters affecting mail exchanged among various countries.




Total population of audience being measured.


Unix hosting


Unix hosting is when an ISP or hosting facility runs your site on some variety of a Unix operating system. Unix hosting is typically more expensive than Linux hosting because of licensing fees associated with the Unix operating systems.


Unpaid Copies


The circulation of a magazine that is either distributed entirely free to the recipeint or is distributed at a price inadequate to qualify as "paid".


Unresolved IP Addresses


IP addresses that do not identify their 1st or 2nd level domain. Unresolved IP addresses should be aggregated and reported as such. See also domain.


Unsecure Page


If transfer of information over the Internet is not secure, it means that encryption software is not being used to protect the information and prevent it being read or tampered with.


Unsecure WiFi


Opposite of "secure Wi-Fi" you do not need a password to gain access. See "secure Wi-Fi 




Refers to people who indicate that they do not wish to receive a notification via email.




To transmit a file of data from your computer to another computer. The opposite of download.




URI identifies the name and location of a file or resource in a uniform format. It includes a string of characters for the filename and may also contain the path to the directory of the file. URIs provide a standard way for resources to be accessed by other computers across a network or over the World Wide Web. 




Stands for "Uniform Resource Locator." A URL is the address of a specific Web site or file on the Internet. It cannot have spaces or certain other characters and uses forward slashes to denote different directories.


URL tagging


The process of embedding unique identifiers into URLs contained in HTML content. These identifiers are recognized by Web servers on subsequent browser requests. Identifying visitors through information in the URLs should also allow for an acceptable calculation of visits, if caching is avoided.




(Universal Serial Bus) Allows for numerous things such as the ability to add peripheries – plugging in a printer, a mouse or an attachment to directly add photos from a camera’s memory card. Equally you can use USB sticks as an external storage source that has files (such as music) without taking up space on the tablet PCs internal memory.




An individual with access to the World Wide Web.


User Agent String


A field in the server log file which identifies the specific browser software and computer operating system making the request.


User centric measurement


Web audience measurement based on the behavior of a sample of Web users.


User registration


Information contributed by an individual which usually includes characteristics such as the person's age, gender, zip code and often much more. A site’s registration system is usually based on an ID code or password to allow the site to determine the number of unique visitors and to track a visitor's behavior within that site.




Name that identifies a user to a computer network; generally used in conjunction with a password to establish the user's right to access a host; also called account name or user ID. See also "Password."


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VAST (Video Ad Serving Template)


Developed by the IAB to address the problems of efficiency and scale. The VAST standardizes the communication between video players and servers.


Vector Graphic Format


Vector files are much smaller than bitmap files for image types except photos (TIF is the best photo choice).


Video Output - HDMI/DVI socket


Means you can run a lead from the iPad to your High Definition TV – this could be useful if you put a HD film on your tablet but wanted to watch it back on a bigger screen.


Video Sharing


Video sharing refers to websites or software where users can distribute their video clips. Some services may charge a fee, but the large majority offer free services. Many services offer private sharing and other publication options. (YouTube and Vimeo are examples of video sharing sites.)




Person viewing content or ads on the Web. There is currently no way to measure viewers.




It refers to a digital video, image, or article that has spiked in popularity and has reached a large number of users in a short period of time. While there is no exact number of views that makes something "go viral," most viral media is viewed by more than a million people in less than a week. 


Viral Marketing


Any advertising that propagates itself; Advertising and/or marketing techniques that "spread" like a virus by getting passed on from consumer to consumer and market to market.


Virtual Memory


Virtual memory increases the available memory your computer has by enlarging the "address space," or places in memory where data can be stored. It does this by using hard disk space for additional memory allocation. 




Software used to infect a computer; virus code is usually buried within other programming code. Once the program is executed the virus is activated and attaches copies of itself to other programs in the system. Most viruses can also replicate themselves and spread to other computers. Viruses can cause lost or damaged files, and can be transmitted by downloading programming from other sites or can be present on a diskette. The source of the file you're downloading or of a diskette you've received is often unaware of the virus.




Measurement which has been filtered for robotic activity of one or more text and/or graphics downloads from a site without 30 consecutive minutes of inactivity and which can be reasonably attributed to a single browser for a single session. See for ad campaign measurement guidelines.


Visit Duration


The length of time the visitor is exposed to a specific ad, Web page or Web site during a single session.




Individual or browser which accesses a Web site within a specific time period.




(Virtual Learning Environment) is a virtual classroom that allows teachers and students to communicate with each other online. Class information, learning materials, and assignments are typically provided via the Web. 




Video blog, a vlog is a blog, or web log, that includes video clips. 


VOD (Video On Demand)


Usually refers to services offered by cable companies through their proprietary set-top boxes.


Voice Note


Voice notes from your BlackBerry smartphone gives your emails and messages personality by being able to record your voice or a sound in a clip and send it to your family and friends. 




Total product usage or spending by a particular magazine audience on a specific product/service (e.g. ABC magazine readers have spent x dollars on home electronics)


Voucher Package


An inexpensive direct mail format that touts a heavily discounted introductory subscription offer (ostensibly made because of a prospect's professional or special statushence the term professional discount package).




(Virtual Private Network) provides secure access over the Internet to private networks, such as the network at your company or school. 


VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language)


Programming language designed to be a 3D analog to HTML.


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The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) maintains standards for the World Wide Web. Two popular standards maintained by the W3C are HTML and HTTP. www: An acronym for World Wide Web, the system by which information is made available, anywhere in the world, to computer users who are connected to the Internet .




(Wirelesss Application Protocol) A standard for providing cellphones, pagers and other handhelds with secure access to e-mail and text-based Web pages. WAP provides an environment for wireless applications that includes a wireless version of TCP/IP and a framework for telephony integration such as call control and phone book access. Supporting keypad and voice recognition, WAP is independent of the air interface and runs over all major wireless networks. It is also device independent and can be used in any mobile device. 


WASP (Wireless Applications Service Provider)


An organization that provides content and applications for wireless devices.




Wideband Code Division Multiple Access is a UTMS technology which, while easily confused with the CDMA network used by Verizon, is actually associated with GSM networks like HSPA. 


Web 2.0


A phrase coined by O'Reilly Media in 2004, refers to a perceived second-generation of Web-based services-such as social networking sites, wikis, communication tools, and folksonomies-that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users.


Web Beacon


A line of code which is used by a Web site or third party ad server to track a user’s activity, such as a registration or conversion. A Web beacon is often invisible because it is only 1 x 1 pixel in size with no color. Also known as Web bug, 1 by 1 GIF, invisible GIF and tracker GIF.


Web Bug


Web-based software bug tracking and support management tools that enable program defect testing. See Web beacon.


Web Crawler


See "Robot."


Web Forum


A Web forum is a website or section of a website that allows visitors to communicate with each other by posting messages. Most forums allow anonymous visitors to view forum postings, but require you to create an account in order to post messages in the forum. 


Web Host


A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their own website accessible via the World Wide Web. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server they own or lease for use by their clients as well as providing Internet connectivity, typically in a data center. 


Web Page


A document having a specific URL and comprised of a set of associated files. A page may contain text, images, and other online elements. It may be static or dynamically generated. It may be made up of multiple frames or screens, but should contain a designated primary object which, when loaded, is counted as the entire page.


Web Server


Server with the specific purpose of returning web pages.


Web Services


Web service is any piece of software that makes itself available over the Internet and uses a standardized XML messaging system.


Web Syndication


Web syndication is a form of syndication in which website material is made available to multiple other sites. Most commonly, web syndication refers to making web feeds available from a site in order to provide other people with a summary or update of the website's recently added content (for example, the latest news or forum posts). The term can also be used to describe other kinds of licensing website content so that other websites can use it. 




A webcast is a media presentation distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology to distribute a single content source to many simultaneous listeners/viewers. A webcast may either be distributed live or on demand. Essentially, webcasting is “broadcasting” over the Internet.




An open source layout engine that is used to render Web pages in Apple's Safari, Google's Chrome and other Web browsers. It is also used in smartphones from Nokia, Apple, Google and others. WebKit was derived from the KHTML rendering engine used by the Konquerer browser in the Linux KDE desktop. In 2002, Apple modified KHTML and dubbed it WebKit. 




The webmaster is the person in charge of maintaining a Web site. The jobs of a webmaster include writing HTML for Web pages, organizing the Web site's structure, responding to e-mails about the Web site, and keeping the site up-to-date.




Group of web pages that fall under a specific fully qualified domain.


White List


An ISP-approved list of certain Bulk Mailers and e-mail marketers who have met an ISP’s delivery standards and whose messages will reach their intended recipients’ email boxes.


White Mail


Unsolicited subscription orders or letters.


Whole-Copy Claim Form (WCC)


Claim form submitted by a wholesaler in place of actual magazine headings or affidavit. This procedure is used when a wholesaler is instructed to return whole copies or when whole copies are to be used for promotion purposes.




The companies that physically distribute magazines to single-copy retail outlets, process returns and engage in marketing and in-store service. Wholesalers once served specific geographic territories. But due to retail chains' insistence, one or two major wholesalers are now responsible for magazine distribution to an entire retail chain, however geographically far-flung.


Widget (Gadget, Badge or Applet)


A widget is a small program run by the Mac OS X Dashboard or the Yahoo! Widget Engine. Dashboard is only available on Macintosh computers, while the Yahoo! Widget Engine is available for both Windows and Macintosh platforms. Some common widgets include weather guides, stock lists, flight trackers, calendars, and search boxes for various websites. Widgets are convenient tools since they are always only one click or keystroke away.




Shorthand for Wireless Fidelity, also known as Wireless Networking. This standard replaces the cables in an ethernet network via a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over distances of a few hundred feet. WiFi uses ethernet protocol. If you have a wireless network set-up at home or you are in a public wireless area then the tablet PC will find the Wi-Fi signal for you and connect the tablet PC to the internet. Then you are able to browse the web, access files, download apps without linking it up to a PC. The more bars, the stronger the connection.




A wiki is a Web site that allows users to add and update content on the site using their own Web browser. This is made possible by Wiki software that runs on the Web server. Wikis end up being created mainly by a collaborative effort of the site visitors. A great example of a large wiki is the Wikipedia, a free encyclopedia in many languages that anyone can edit. The term "wiki" comes from the Hawaiian phrase, "wiki wiki," which means "super fast."




This term is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access - a new broadband technology that claims to offer a wireless broadband alternative without the need for cables. Like LTE WiMAX is being touted as the next generation of mobile broadband, but could be a serious long-term threat to fixed-line broadband too. 


Windows Hosting


Windows hosting is when an ISP or hosting facility runs your site on a Microsoft Windows server. Windows hosting is typically more expensive than linux hosting because of licensing fees associated with Microsoft operating systems.


Windows Operating System


Microsoft Windows is the most popular operating system for personal computers. There are several versions of the Windows operating system, including Windows XP (for home users) and Windows 2000 (for professional users). Earlier versions of Windows include Windows 3.1, 95, 98, ME, and NT. All Windows platforms use a graphical user interface (GUI), like the Mac OS, and also offer a command-line interface for typing text commands. 


Wire Frame


Simplest type of data representation for 3-D characteristics of a Web page. Lays out elements of each page.




Shipped single copies that never reach the racks. Wholesalers sometimes withhold copies, cut allotments and return the remainder because they believe they are being oversupplied with a given title, or because a retail outlet will accept only a portion of its allotment.




Is the abbreviation for wireless local area network, and is more commonly known as Wi-Fi. 




Drop-shipping (see definition), sorting and bundling magazines or mail to reduce the work required by the U.S. Postal Service and thereby qualify for lower postage rates.




Stands for "World Wide Web." 


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Acronym for eXtensible Markup Language, a text markup language used for interchange of structured data, designed especially for Web documents. It is a flexible way to create standard information formats and share both the format and the data on the World Wide Web. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations. XML is a trademark of the World Wide Web Consortium.


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The percentage of clicks vs. impressions on an ad within a specific page. Also called ad click rate.




YouTube is a video sharing service that allows users to watch videos posted by other users and upload videos of their own. The service was started as an independent website in 2005 and was acquired by Google in 2006. Videos that have been uploaded to YouTube may appear on the YouTube website and can also be posted on other websites, though the files are hosted on the YouTube server. 


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A zip file (.zip) is a "zipped" or compressed file. 


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